Posted by: Sandaura | March 23, 2011

A CONSTANT, NON STOP “PULSED” LOW RADIO FREQUENCY HUM AND DRONE RADIATING FROM GLOBAL SMART GRID MESH NETWORK!

FINGERPRINT OF 217Hz-SOURCE OF NOISE

WE ARE ALL BEING EXPOSED TO THE BIGGEST AVOIDABLE HEALTH HAZARD IN  THE  HISTORY OF OUR PLANET! 

THE GLOBAL SMART GRID SYNDROME

PLEASE CONTACT US @ globalrfrdefenseteam@verizon.net

Site Updated Daily

We have published this blog for victims who are hearing a constant noise inside as well as outside.  I am coining the term, “SMART GRID SYNDROME” WHEN REFERRING TO THE SYMPTOMS WE ARE EXPERIENCING.  WE ARE ALL EXPOSED  TO THE EMR NOISE AND RADIATION, RESULTING IN THE EMISSIONS OF THE GLOBAL SMART GRID NETWORK.  After visiting forums and  reading several blogs related to this particular noise(s), we found that people, in general, are seeking answers as to what is happening to them and are desperate for the truth.   One blog was consistent with the descriptors of what we have been describing to the State of Massachusetts.  We have confirmed it is a microwave pulsation accompanied by   “pure tones”,  illegal in our State of  Massachusetts. The Regulations were adopted from the EPA  who studied pure tone noise and in 1972 determined it to be a noxious air pollutant, thus being a human health hazard.  Whether proven to be a pure tone or not; it is a nuisance and it is trespassing on and in to your home and the source is the utilities who are leaking carcinogenic microwave frequencies they are injecting through power lines for the Smart Grid communication layer of the global network.  The power lines were designed to transmit electricity.  They are using broadband, Dsl, Wi-Fi, wired, unwired, Sat, cell; whatever they choose to use because they have many options on how to operate the Smart Grid Network.  The noise is a by-product of the Radio Frequency interference, radiation and dirty power riding on the wires and radiating through every outlet in to your home, school and workplace.  The constant pounding of these modulated pulsed signals is biologically invasive to all who are exposed to it and produce serious negative symptoms. Thousands of Medical studies prove this a Public Health Hazard.

DEFINITION OF NOISE   “Noise is an unwanted or objectionable sound”   VERY IMPORTANT!!  When trying to explain this NOISE be aware that the ignorant, be them experts, professionals or not, the noise is incorrectly defined  if it is described as just a sound.  IT IS AN UNWANTED OR OBJECTIONABLE SOUND.  MUSIC IS SOUND, EVERYTHING THAT YOU CAN HEAR IS A SOUND.  THIS is a noise from hell, manmade, radio frequency signals that are leaking into our air causing them to bounce, reflect, enabling them to be heard in  the human hearing range.  These are illegal pure tones (pure tones are extremely rare and not normally found in our environment) and damage  hearing with prolonged exposure.  This is an unprecedented event that has never occurred  for, historically, mankind has never before lived with wireless/bio active microwaves leaking in the air.  How could anyone even fathom such a disaster and that we would be expected to live and be perpetually exposed to this hazardous pollution in our daily lives, 24 hours, day and night, against our will, without permission, with no way to escape it?  The dismissal  of our pleas for help and evidence by our local, State and Federal Governments,  the lack of empathy and desire to do anything about it,  even by victims who are aware and suffering from this technology, is unconscionable.  Without  personal responsibility there will be no resolution or  accountability of the crimes being perpetrated on our Society.  Sickness and death is inevitably the result of doing nothing.

THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR HEARERS TO UNDERSTAND.  IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO ALL OTHERS WHO DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE OF WHAT WE ARE HEARING AND TINNITUS.  TINNITUS IS DEFINED AS SUCH: Tinnitus is an auditory sensation characterized by the perception of sound or noise in the absence of any external sound source. Based on neurobiological research, it is generally accepted that most forms of tinnitus are attributable to maladaptive plasticity due to damage to auditory system. Changes have been observed in auditory structures such as the inferior colliculus, the thalamus and the auditory cortex as well as in non-auditory brain areas. However, the observed changes show great variability, hence lacking a conclusive picture. One of the reasons might be the selection of inhomogeneous groups in data analysis.  (EXCERPT FROM: The Differences in Brain Activity between Narrow Band Noise and Pure Tone Tinnitus Published: October 27, 2010  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013618)

PLEASE, Research:  The Lilly Wave called a balanced bidirectional pulse pair invented by John Cunningham Lilly is a carrier waveform that bypasses the mind’s subconscious defense systems. It has been monitored via oscilloscopes connected to homes A/C ground and neutral of power lines. It can be used to transmit mind control via ultrasonic (1 – 10MHz) and electromagnetic wavelengths (600m to 1e-15m). 
•Electromagnetic wavelengths transmit long/short/FM wavelength radio waves, and TV/telephone/wireless signals or energies. They are also responsible for transmitting energy in the form of microwaves, infrared radiation (IR), visible light (VIS), ultraviolet light (UV), X-rays, and gamma rays (1996) 
• The Lilly wave can be neutralized via pink or white noise generators connecting to the non-voltage A/C ground and neutral of the homes power grid.

The goal was to find an electric current waveform with which animals could be stimulated through implanted electrodes for several hours per day for several months without causing irreversible changes in threshold by the passage of current through the tissue.
Many waveforms, including 60-cps. sine-wave current could apparently be used safely for these limited schedules of stimulation. They could not be used for the intensive, long-term schedule of chronic stimulation. Electric current passed through the brain can cause at least two distinct types of injury: thermal and electrolytic.
The technical problem in chronic brain stimulation is to stay above the excitatory threshold and below the injury threshold in the neuronal system under consideration. This result can be achieved most easily by the proper choice of waveforms and their time courses; and less easily by the choice of the range of repetition frequencies and train durations.
The previous wave forms used in neurophysiology and in neurosurgery injured the neurons when unidirectional current passed through the brain. Dr. Lilly developed a new electrical wave form to balance the current, first in one direction and then, after a brief interval, in the other. Thus ions moving in the neurons would first be pushed one way and then quickly the other way, stimulating the neurons and leaving the ions in their former positions within the neurons. This new wave form was called a balanced bidirectional pulse pair, or the Lilly Wave. Microscopic studies of brains stimulated with this balanced pulse pair showed that there was no injury of the neuronai networks from this kind Waveform of stimulating current: pulse pairs of current resulting from quasi-differentiation, with passive electrical elements, of a rectangular pulse. Measured at 2 percent of the peak, the duration of the positive pulse (upward) is 34 µsec, and the duration of the negative pulse (downward) is 28 µsec. stimulation.

 Cause of the Hum Broadcasting on Power lines (Forensic evidence below and in the forensic fingerprint at top of page)

Proof of Hum on Power lines and the Source of World Wide Public Health Hazard

Proof of Hum on Power lines and the Source of World Wide Public Health Hazard

Our research/investigation has been ongoing since 2006 when the Utilities turned on the Global Smart Grid Network in our town.  The reason for the investigation is due to the Constant noise being heard in our home and around our town.  We have conclusive forensic evidence that ponts to the 902-928MHz unlicensed frequency band being used across the country and Canada to operating the mesh communication layer of the Global Smart Grid Network.  The ARRL in the U.S. and Canada have filed numerous complaints siting the utilities are violating the FCC part 15 rules.  This links our evidence of the 217Hz, which is the audible illegal pure tone measured as per the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection.  Our evidence proves a constant tone in our environment, man-made, not allowed in our air as per the EPA  Clean Air Act, which were adopted by Massachusetts in 1990.  The 217Hz is a demodulated pulsed frequency transmitting in concert with 902-928MHz spectrum for communication with the Smart meters.  Our 1/3 octave measurements taken as per MAdep protocol was confirmed by an acoustic engineer revealing the 217Hz is an illegal pure tone, (pulsing also occurs at 8.34Hz)it is in exceedence of the MA Noise pollution Laws. The expert stated the frequency is within human hearing range and would cause a disturbance, especially at night.   We also have the affidavit of A certified Forensic Audio engineer who also confirmed the constant noise is the 217Hz, a modulating pulse.  The measurements taken at our home, 5 miles away from our home and during a major power outage were all identical fingerprints. This is the evidence the Massachusetts Regulatory agencies have in their possession and have blatantly ignored and dismissed by closing the investigation for the 3rd time!  The MA Department of Environmental Protection would not hire their own expert to do overnight pure tone measurements.  They would not include the FCC in the investigation.  They deferred to the utilities to do the overnight pure tone studies.  The utility, National Grid, botched the overnight testing, both, in our home and outside where they placed the meters.  The MA Department of Environment Protection, Department of Public Health and the Department of Public Utilities did not come back to do the overnight pure tone testing as per their testing design.  Instead, they closed our case with no reasonable explanation.

National Grid, USA and other utilities across the country “turned on” in 2006- the 2 way communication fixed and wired AMI network.  Nationl Grid uses the Landis GYR TS-2 AMI technology.  THIS IS WHEN THE CONSTANT NOISE STARTED RADIATING IN OUR AIR;  Carried by the interconnected power grid; turning the wires into one big continuous antenna and electromagnetic weapon!!!  This must be stopped.  Time for our engineers, professionals, experts to pay attention to the biggest death weapon directed at the entire population while assaulting us with NOISE, DIRTY ELECTRICITY 24/7.

Latest research in Germany points to mobile communication radio waves (base station antennas) as source of the hum. The hum is not caused by the cell phones themselves but by the emissions of the base stations (antennas) transported over the air interface.
The low frequent pulsing and modulations of the signals lead to acoustic resonance in buildings. http://archive.is/vSMuu

Bees are frequency-sensitive, like all living organisms: TIMELINE OF THE BEES, BATS BIRDS DEMISE IS LATE 2006=EARLY 2007.  THE TIME LINE IS EXACTLY THE TIME NATIONAL GRID TURNED ON THEIR PERSONAL WIRELESS MESH NETWORK LAYER FOR THE SMART GRID IN OUR TOWN ON MT WILCOX.  LATE FULL/EARLY WINTER THE NOISE BEGAN AND THE NEGATIVE SIDE EFFECTS AS WELL DUE TO THE PULSED SIGNAL FROM THE BASE STATION TRANSMITTING THE 217Hz. There was and is no other cell tower within 5 miles of our home, so this explains why our cell phone works if you face it toward the north in the direction of Mt. Wilcox.  The Antenna, data collector, tower, what ever they choose to call it is filed under the FCC as Personal Mobile.  There is nothing personal about it.  The end user is not the public. It is for corporate use.  Why aren’t these antennas under investigation by the FCC.  They are in violation of the FCC Part 15.   National Grid and all utilities using this wireless protocol is in violation of the clean air act.  They are radiating EMR noise pollution that is harming all living things.

Read an excerpt below: There may indeed be more than one ‘hum’, but since bees are so sensitive to particular frequencies, this is a worthwhile route for research, especially if hives resonate in response to the now all-pervasive EM fields. This is why the HUM we are describing in not related to The Historic HUM Mystery. As stated many times in research studies Hum typically occurs in regional clusters, and rarely within large metropolitan areas. Here is the link to read the full report. http://arizonaskywatch.com/?topic=haarp-and-birds-and-bees-04152007 The Modern Day Hum we have time lined since 2006 is being heard everywhere, not in pockets, clusters or regions. Our registry of people who are hearing the noise we describe are located all across the United States and World. Cities, rural, urban and the like all can hear the Noise we describe and it is a current timeline. The pockets or clusters of the hum, some explained and some still left a mystery could be related to electromagnetic inference and the emissions could have been radiating on the power lines as well, but the reason this is ubiquitous is because of the pulsed RF signals of the wireless devices being employed by the PLC mesh layer of the Global Automated metering infrastructure, which all or most of the population is exposed to.

Our Recordings identify both the hum and the drone:

It is interesting to reflect that many people complain of ‘the hum’, relating electromagnetic sources with an apparently acoustic phenomenon.  GSM mobile phone systems produce a structural pulse frequency of 217Hz; pulsing also occurs at 8.34Hz.  The 8.34Hz is the source of the droning drum-like very low frequency vibration.  I hear both simultaneously 24/7.  You may  hear one or the other or both.

Listen to this youtube recording of infrasound around 8Hz and this is the drone resonance:

The cadence is different, but the tone is about the right pitch.  This is what is accompanying the Buzz tone.

_________________________________________

[Excerpt from smartmeterdangers.org]
 SMD Note: Smart meters utilize a 912 MHz frequency and emit pulsed rf radiation 24/7, with full body exposures at up to 160x that of cell phones (Hirsch, 2011). This is an example of thousands of studies that show this is dangerous to the public health. 

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P Esmekaya MA et al, (December 2010) Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: a light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study, Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Dec;86(12):1106-16. Epub 2010 Sep 1

In the present study we investigated the possible histopathological effects of pulse modulated Radiofrequency (RF) fields on the thyroid gland using light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. Two months old male Wistar rats were exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated RF radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.35 Watt/kg for 20 min/day for three weeks. The RF signals were pulse modulated by rectangular pulses with a repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a duty cycle of 1:8 (pulse width 0.576 ms). To assess thyroid endocrine disruption and estimate the degree of the pathology of the gland, we analysed structural alterations in follicular and colloidal diameters and areas, colloid content of the follicles, and height of the follicular epithelium. Apoptosis was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and assessing the activites of an initiator (caspase-9) and an effector (caspase-3) caspases that are important markers of cells undergoing apoptosis. Morphological analyses revealed hypothyrophy of the gland in the 900 MHz RF exposure group. The results indicated that thyroid hormone secretion was inhibited by the RF radiation. In addition, we also observed formation of apoptotic bodies and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in thyroid cells of the rats that were exposed to modulated RF fields. The overall findings indicated that whole body exposure to pulse-modulated RF radiation that is similar to that emitted by global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones can cause pathological changes in the thyroid gland by altering the gland structure and enhancing caspase-dependent pathways of apoptosis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20807179
entire article for individual use:
http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/Tiroides_Pulse_modulated_900_MHz_radiation_induce_hypothyroidism_and_apoptosis.pdf

Beyond ear perception, the radiation is also otherwise physically noticed by humans. Reasons that speak for mobile communication as source of the hum:
– correlations between peoples´ reports of first hearing the hum and the setup of antennas in their neighborhood, clearly demonstrable in small towns and villages; increase of the phenomenon parallels setup of antennas;
– physical complaints of hum sufferers are the same as the symptoms that are reported for radio wave sickness
– measurements show artificial signals in the ELF-range; qualitative signal analyses show characteristics of portable radio technology (pulsing, modulation)
– effects of radiation by mobile radio waves on human brain waves in the ELF-range have already been medically proven.

ELF frequencies in mobile communication technology as cause of the hum?

Many people are not aware of the fact that – besides RF frequencies – also low frequencies (ELF frequencies) play an important role in mobile communication technology. This is not only the case with regard to the cell phones (as has been focussed in most publications), but also with regard to the so-called “base stations”.
Low frequencies are used in two techniques: in signal pulsing and in wave modulation.  Our audio also points to an audible bass tone resonance also being heard by victims.

The descriptions that are consistently reaffirmed by victims across the country as well as the world are:

1. Constant noise  2. Humming  3.Buzzing  4. Oscillating pulse  5. Thudding, thumping, rumbling resonance 6. Sounds like a motor idling outside my house 7. can hear it during power outage  8. disturbs sleep  9. unnerving  10. checked all mechanical functions in the home  11. called the utilities; they did nothing 12. Can hear it outside  13. Can hear it sitting with the car turned off.  14. Started hearing it around 2006 to present  15. pressure in the ears and head  16. Not tinnitus 17. Have to sleep with a fan, music, tv to mask the noise; even though I have to listen to another noise than that insidious noise.  18. I can not relax listening to it.  19. Some people hear it some don’t  20. I am afraid to talk about it because people will think I am crazy  21. I have never had trouble sleeping before this noise started  22.  Some mention power lines, microwave  transmitters, cell towers, gas lines, water lines as a theory.  23.  Siren  24. high pitch frequency 25. CAN HEAR IT DURING A POWER OUTAGE.  26.  The noise is present 24 hours a day.

This is to name a few of the descriptors of hearing the Noise.  The Symptoms of the ill effects of being exposed to this noise and radiation pollution are as follows, but not limited to:

Headaches, heart palpitations , vertigo, insomnia, nose bleeds, muscle aches and involuntary muscle spasms, nervous tension, irritability, anger, feeling not in control of your environment, alienated and not understood, loss of concentration, tired, feeling your body is buzzing, hissing and ringing in the ears from the very high radio frequencies in the Microwave spectrum; radiating in the air and on riding on the power-lines through every outlet of public and private buildings.

Low frequency noise annoyance and stress  (from Noise and Health 2004 Volume 6 Issue 23 Page: 59-72 HG Leventhall

Stresses may be grouped into three broad types: cataclysmic stress, personal stress and background stress. Cataclysmic stress includes widespread and devastating physical events. Personal stress includes bereavements and other personal tragedies. Cataclysmic and personal stresses are evident occurrences, which are met with sympathy and support, whilst their impacts normally reduce with time. Background stresses are persistent events, which may become routine elements of our life. Constant low-frequency noise has been classified as a background stressor (Benton, 1997; Benton and Leventhall, 1994). Whilst it is acceptable, under the effects of cataclysmic and personal stress, to withdraw from coping with normal daily demands, this is not permitted for low level background stresses. Inadequate reserves of coping ability then leads to the development of stress symptoms. In this way, chronic psychophysiological damage may result from long-term exposure to low-level low-frequency noise.

Changes in behavior also follow from long­ term exposure to low-frequency noise. Those exposed may adopt protective strategies, such as sleeping in their garage if the noise is less disturbing there. Or they may sleep elsewhere,  returning to their own homes only during the day.  Victims over time, may undergo character changes, particularly in relation to social orientation, consistent with their failure to recruit support and agreement from the regulatory authority that they do have a genuine noise problem. Their families, and the investigating officer, may also become part of their problem. The claim that their “lives have been ruined” by the noise is not an exaggeration, although their reaction to the noise might have been modifiable at an earlier stage.

Comments on Health, Human Rights, Environmental and Security Concerns With regard to the FortisBC Inc. Application for a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure Project, Project No.3698682:

http://www.bcuc.com/Documents/Proceedings/2013/DOC_33386_C9-10-1_CSTS_Jamieson-Evidence.pdf     (referencing the bio-active 217Hz pulsed frequency)

1.2.12.4 Sleep-related fatigue and road accidents  page 34

We have forensic audio evidence proving this is in our environment and ubiquitous throughout our community 24 hours a day. We have identified the noise in several other towns and cities where we have lived and traveled.  We live in a community that does not have cell towers, public sewer, gas lines, industry, major highways.  The only thing we have is Broadband high-speed internet and Wi-Fi and wireless smart meters.  We did not hear this noise until this was rolled out in our town and same follows in the other places we hear the noise.  In our town National Grid is our electric provider.   In 2006 National Grid installed a wireless digital meter on our home without our knowledge or consent.  In order to manage their wireless network it has to be secure so they acquired approval for a secure personal wireless service (a secure server),  in order to communicate and transfer personal information to their central office.  The wireless network within the electric grid is responsible for the constant noise.  The noise began when they connected the wireless smart meter communication mesh layer in our area.  The wireless network is transmitting on the grid even during major outages. This is why it is heard everywhere and ubiquitous in our environment.  This is the Modern day Hum people are wondering about.   It is not a car idling, an air conditioner rattling, highway traffic, industry. We recorded a fingerprint of a pulsed radio frequency, not a power 60Hz sine wave.  It is narrowband, not broadband, it is man made, not something that is natural. To better understand the various ways the modernization or automation of the smart grid is being implemented read:  A Survey of Wireless Communications for the Electric Power System by  BA Akyol H Kirkham, SL Clements,  MD Hadley    January 2010

We have a fingerprint of this noise as a result of retaining a Forensic Audio engineer.  He has confirmed by analyzing recordings of several locations in our town, as well as a recording during a power outage.  The results are identical audio fingerprint.  1/3 octave band testing confirmed a constant noise, the 217Hz, in the 250Hz narrowband, it is a modulating pulse bursting every second with 1/8 second micro bursts.  This is proven science and it has been duplicated and confirmed repeatedly.  The audio recordings have been documented for the past three years, preserved in data form onto CDs.  This evidence, along with our 1/3 octave band results showing illegal pure tones/noise,  power quality results showing dirty electricity/noise, forensic audio results confirming constant noise, witnesses and other residents in our town who have filed noise complaints with the State.  Yet, we are approaching 7 years of willful negligence by  the State and Utilities in not acknowledging their culpability and intentions to clean up the harmful pollution impacting our heath and well-being.   Thousands of health studies prove this is  a public health  hazard; both the acoustic assault and the non-thermal radiation exposure will have a long term health effects.  We are being used for a human experiment.   The long term exposure to the pure tone of the 217Hz can damage the cohlear in the middle ear.  This is why the EPA set pure tone exposure limits for workplaces.  These limits were for 8 hour work shifts.  We are exposed to the 217Hz pure tone 24 hours a day, non stop, every day!!!  Please help us to expose the truth about this deadly technology.  The Smart Grid is not an intelligent technology. It is a ruthless, greedy, sinister, desperate plan, with no regard for human life.  The Radio frequency spread spectrum of the 902MHz-928MHz being used on the mesh layer of Global Smart metering infrastructure  uses the 217Hz demodulated pulsed frequency to to carry its signal 24 hours a day non stop.  This is why it is heard during a power outage as well.

If you are a victim of this noise please contact us by emailing the globalrfrdefenseteam@verizon.net.  The only way we will be able to get attention on this issue, is by proving the pollution is wide-spread.   We are looking for victims to post their location and experience of hearing this noise and include when you started hearing it.  Please leave your testimonials on the Smart Meter testimonial page.  We are also interested in collecting data in your area.   PLEASE, we are only interested personal experiences and nothing that predated Wireless high-speed broadband and Wi-Fi roll-out, Power-line 2 way communication and the wireless digital meter put on our home in September of 2006, without our knowledge or consent.  Our complaints predated our knowledge or awareness of what the smart grid is about.  We have documented complaints to the State and utilities that prove our symptoms we experienced was not pointing to the smart meters at the time.  We knew it was electromagnetic in nature because of the audible harmonics. Our power quality testing pointed to the utility side.  The report prompted The state to open another investigation,  not to our surprise, was all smoke and mirrors.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonic_weapon

Noise-induced neurologic disturbances in humans exposed to continuous low frequency tones for durations longer than 15 minutes has involved in some cases the development of immediate and long-term problems affecting brain tissue. The symptoms resembled those of individuals who had suffered minor head injuries. One theory for a causal mechanism is that the prolonged sound exposure resulted in enough mechanical strain to brain tissue to induce an encephalopathy.[14]

Please visit our videos on YouTube:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7mLtygxIaFs

“I have no doubt in my mind that at the present time, the greatest polluting element in the earth’s environment is the proliferation of electromagnetic fields.  I consider that to be far greater on a global scale, than warming, and the increase in chemical elements in the environment.”      Dr Robert O. Becker, M.D.  twice nominated for Nobel Prize of this research.

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We need your help to legally force the Massachusetts Regulatory Agencies to do their job and to enforce the laws appropriately. This will set a precedent for your State.  Show your appreciation by donating to the Legal Fund by emailing us at globalrfrdefenseteam@verizon.net.


Responses

  1. SA Lay Language Papers
    164th Acoustical Society of America Meeting
    [ Lay Language Paper Index | Press Room]

    Relevance and Applicability of the Soundscape Concept to
    Physiological or Behavioral Effects Caused by Noise at Very Low Frequencies which May Not Be Audible

    Wade Bray — wbray@headacoustics.com
    HEAD acoustics, Inc.
    6964 Kensington Road
    Brighton, MI 48116
    Popular version of paper 2aNS6

    Presented Tuesday morning, October 23, 2012
    164th ASA Meeting, Kansas City, Missouri
    A central tenet of the Soundscape concept is that humans immersed in sonic environments are
    objective measuring instruments (New Experts), whose reports and descriptions must be taken
    seriously and quantified by technical measurements. A topic category in acoustics meetings of
    recent years is “Perception and Effects of Noise.” There is growing evidence from the field, and
    from medical research, that the ear’s two-part transducer activity involving inner hair cells (IHC,
    hearing, velocity-sensitive) and outer hair cells (OHC, displacement-sensitive) may, through
    demonstrated OHC activation and neural signals at up to 40 dB below the audibility threshold,
    produce behavioral and physiological effects as reported by a growing number of people. The
    Soundscape concept centering on human responses, New Experts, is as important and applicable
    to responses to effects from sound as it is to responses to directly audible sound. In a wider
    sense, this is a new sound quality and psychoacoustic issue.
    Introduction
    Soundscaping integrates two relationships of sound and people: that people are the ultimate
    analysts or data sources about their responses to sound because it is they who are immersed in it
    or make it, and that sounds (receptions by people) are always part of human contexts; panoramas
    involving other senses, the environments in which people live or work, and the people’scognitive as well as sensory

    Google to read full paper….

  2. PUBLIC NOTICE
    Federal Communications Commission
    445 12th St., S.W.
    Washington, D.C. 20554
    News Media Information 202 / 418-0500
    Internet: https://www.fcc.gov
    TTY: 1-888-835-5322
    DA 16-676
    Released: June 15, 2016
    OFFICE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY ANNOUNCES TECHNOLOGICAL
    ADVISORY COUNCIL (TAC) NOISE FLOOR TECHNICAL INQUIRY
    ET Docket No. 16-191
    Comment Deadline: August 11, 2016
    The FCC’s Technological Advisory Council (TAC), an advisory group to the FCC operating under the
    Federal Advisory Committee Act, is investigating changes and trends to the radio spectrum noise floor to
    determine if there is an increasing noise problem, and if so, the scope and quantitative evidence of such
    problem(s), and how a noise study should be performed. In this public notice, the Office of Engineering
    and Technology (OET) announces the TAC’s public inquiry, seeking comments and answers to questions
    below for the TAC about radio spectrum noise.1
    TAC Noise Floor Technical Inquiry
    The TAC is requesting input to help answer questions about the study of changes to the spectrum noise
    floor over the past 20 years. Noise in this context denotes unwanted radio frequency (RF) energy from
    man-made sources. Like many spectrum users, TAC members expect that the noise floor in the radio
    spectrum is rising as the number of devices in use that emit radio energy grows. However, in search for
    concrete evidence of increased noise floors, we have found limited available quantitative data to support
    this presumption. We are looking to find ways to add to the available data in order to answer important
    questions for the FCC regarding this topic.
    Radio spectrum noise is generated by many different types of devices. Devices that are not designed to
    generate or emit RF energy but do so as a result of their operation are called Incidental Radiators. Most
    electric motors, light dimmers, switching power supplies, utility transformers and power lines are
    included in this category. There is little regulation governing the noise generated by these devices. Noise
    from such sources is expected to be minimized with “Good Engineering Practices.”
    Devices that are designed to generate RF energy for internal use, or send RF signals by conduction to
    associated equipment via connected wiring, but are not intended to emit RF energy, are called
    Unintentional Radiators. Computers and many portable electronic devices in use today, as well as many
    new high efficiency lights, are included in this category. Current regulations limit the levels of emitted RF
    energy from these devices.
    Unlicensed Intentional Radiators, Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) Radiators, and Licensed
    Radiators are devices that are designed to generate and emit RF energy by radiation or induction. Cellular
    1 https://transition.fcc.gov/bureaus/oet/tac/tacdocs/meeting6916/TAC-Noise-Floor-Technical-Inquiry.pdf
    2
    phones and base stations, unlicensed wireless routers, Bluetooth devices, broadcast TV and radio stations,
    and radars of many types, are all examples of licensed / unlicensed intentional radiators, and microwave
    ovens, arc welders, and fluorescent lighting are examples of ISM equipment. Such emitters contribute to
    the noise floor with emissions outside of their assigned frequencies. These are sometimes generated as
    spurious emissions, including, but not limited to, harmonics of desired frequencies and intermodulation
    products. Regulations that permit the operation of these devices also specify the limits of emissions
    outside of licensed or allowed (in the case of unlicensed devices) frequencies of operation.
    We are looking for responses to the following questions to help us identify aspects of a study to determine
    trends in the radio spectrum noise floor.
    1. Is there a noise problem?
    a. If so, what are the expected major sources of noise that are of concern?
    b. What services are being most impacted by a rising spectrum noise floor?
    c. If incidental radiators are a concern, what sorts of government, industry, and civil society
    efforts might be appropriate to ameliorate the noise they produce?
    2. Where does the problem exist?
    a. Spectrally
    i. What frequency bands are of the most interest?
    b. Spatially
    i. Indoors vs outdoors?
    ii. Cities vs rural settings?
    iii. How close in proximity to incidental radiators or other noise sources?
    iv. How can natural propagation effects be accounted for in a noise study?
    c. Temporally
    i. Night versus day?
    ii. Seasonally?
    3. Is there quantitative evidence of the overall increase in the total integrated noise floor across
    various segments of the radio frequency spectrum?
    a. At what levels does the noise floor cause harmful interference to particular radio
    services?
    b. What RF environment data from the past 20 years is available, showing the contribution
    of the major sources of noise?
    c. Please provide references to scholarly articles or other sources of spectrum noise
    measurements.
    4. How should a noise study be performed?
    a. What should be the focus of the noise study?
    b. How should it be funded?
    c. What methods should be used?
    d. How should noise be measured?
    i. What is the optimal instrumentation that should be used?
    ii. What measurement parameters should be used for that instrumentation?
    iii. At what spatial and temporal scales should noise be measured?
    iv. Should the monitoring instrumentation be capable of determining the directions
    of the noise sources? If so, how would those data be used?
    v. Is there an optimal height above ground for measurements?
    e. What measurement accuracy is needed?
    3
    i. What are the statistical requirements for sufficient data? Would these
    requirements vary based on spectral, spatial and temporal factors?
    ii. Can measurements from uncalibrated, or minimally calibrated, devices be
    combined?
    iii. Is it possible to “crowd source” a noise study?
    f. Would receiver noise measurements commonly logged by certain users (e.g. radio
    astronomers, cellular, and broadcast auxiliary licensees) be available and useful for noise
    floor studies?
    g. How much data must be collected to reach a conclusion?
    h. How can noise be distinguished from signals?
    i. Can noise be characterized and its source identified?
    ii. Is there a threshold level, below which measurements should be ignored?
    Procedures
    Interested parties may file comments up until the comment deadline indicated on the first page of this
    document. Comments may be filed using the Commission’s Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS).
    See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998).
     Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the Internet by accessing the
    ECFS: http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs2/.
     Paper Filers: Parties that choose to file by paper must file an original and one copy of each filing.
    If more than one docket or rulemaking number appears in the caption of this proceeding, filers
    must submit two additional copies for each additional docket or rulemaking number.
    Filings can be sent by hand or messenger delivery, by commercial overnight courier, or by firstclass
    or overnight U.S. Postal Service mail. All filings must be addressed to the Commission’s
    Secretary, Office of the Secretary, Federal Communications Commission.
     All hand-delivered or messenger-delivered paper filings for the Commission’s Secretary
    must be delivered to FCC Headquarters at 445 12th St., SW, Room TW-A325,
    Washington, DC 20554. The filing hours are 8:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. All hand deliveries
    must be held together with rubber bands or fasteners. Any envelopes must be disposed of
    before entering the building.
     Commercial overnight mail (other than U.S. Postal Service Express Mail and Priority
    Mail) must be sent to 9300 East Hampton Drive, Capitol Heights, MD 20743.
     U.S. Postal Service first-class, Express, and Priority mail must be addressed to 445 12th
    Street, SW, Washington DC 20554.
    People with Disabilities: To request materials in accessible formats for people with disabilities (braille,
    large print, electronic files, audio format), send an e-mail to fcc504@fcc.gov or call the Consumer &
    Governmental Affairs Bureau at 202-418-0530 (voice), 202-418-0432 (tty).
    For further information, please contact TAC Spectrum and Receiver Performance working group cochairs
    Greg Lapin, ARRL (GLapin@arrl.org) and Lynn Claudy, NAB (LClaudy@nab.org), or TAC
    working group FCC liaison Robert Pavlak, FCC Office of Engineering & Technology
    (Robert.Pavlak@fcc.gov

  3. Attaching Yourself To The Ground Could Be Creating Contact Current
    .

    Total EMF Solutions

    Published on May 26, 2016

  4. EFFECT OF NOISE POLLUTION ON HUMAN BEING:ITS PREVENTION AND CONTROL:

    Keep in mind that the “Pure Tone” noise pollution on the so called Smart Grid is not supposed to be in our air, EVER!! We are the pioneers of something that has NEVER been studied. You will note that when the experts write about noise; it has always been a localized issue; not a global one…..Sandaura

    Journal of Environmental Research And Development Vol. 8 No. 4, April-June 2014

    1026

    Review Paper

    EFFECT OF NOISE POLLUTION ON HUMAN BEING :

    ITS PREVENTION AND CONTROL

    Savale P. A.

    Department of Physics, Arts and Science College, Bhalod, Maharashtra (INDIA)

    Received December 15, 2013 Accepted May 28, 2014

    ABSTRACT

    Now a day, noise pollution is not a new problem for common man, especially in most of the industrial towns and metropolitans cities. Noise pollution means any sound that is undesired by the recipient. The effect of sound on human depends upon its frequency. Human ear are known to be sensitive to an extremely wide range of intensity varied from 0 to 180 dB. The noise is generated by the human through various ways. In present research article, various sources of noise pollution, measurement of noise, dB scale, equipments used in the measurement of noise levels, impacts of noise, adverse health effects of noise pollution, control of indoor noise, control technologies available for noise pollution and Indian penal codes to prevent noise pollution are the main points of focus of attention. Noise must be controlled and prevented by using various effective techniques at the source itself is today’s need. The objective of this research work is to know about the various ways of generation of noise, their effects on human, its prevention and control.

    Key Words : Noise Pollution, Hypertension, Prevention, Human being, dB scale, Impacts of noise

    INTRODUCTION

    The word noise is derived from the Latin word nausea. Noise means wrong sound in the wrong place at the wrong time. Noise pollution may be defined as unwanted sound which gets damped into the atmosphere without regarding to the adverse effects it may have.1-4 Different people have not affected equally by the same noise. There occurs a vast variation in the individual sensitivity to sound and people are affected differently when they are at home and when they are at work. Sound is measured by several complex systems, but the best known unit of measurement is the decibel (dB). Some peoples can hear frequencies that others are not able to detect.

    Sources of noise pollution include inter alia, vehicular traffic, neighborhood, electrical appliances, TV and music systems, public address systems, railway and air traffic and electricity generating sets. Most of the people inhabiting metropolitan cities or big towns and those working in factories are susceptible to the adverse effects of noise. The problem of noise pollution is less in small towns and villages. But, those residing in villages or towns along the national or state highways or close to railway tracks do bear the burnt of excessive noise. Indiscriminate use of horn by the vehicles and widespread use of loud speakers in Indian social and religious ceremonies cause several health hazards to the urban inhabitants. It may cause deafness, nervous breakdown, mental disorder, heart troubles and high blood pressure, head-aches, dizziness, inefficiency and insomnia.5 Though noise pollution is a slow and subtle killer, yet very little efforts have been made to ameliorate the same. It is along with other types of pollution has become a hazard to quality of life. Kiernan finds that an even relatively low level of noise affects human health adversely. It may cause hypertension, disrupt sleep and hinder cognitive development in children.6 The effects of excessive noise could be so severe that either there is a permanent loss of memory or a psychiatric disorder.7 Thus, there are many an adverse effects of excessive noise or sudden exposure to noise.

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&ved=0ahUKEwiyteu-

    xtLMAhWDI5AKHczoB1kQFgg1MAM&url=

    http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jerad.org%2Fppapers%2Fdnload.php%3Fvl%3D8%26is%3D4%26st3D1026&usg=

    AFQjCNGfTGjfisj6FCRUHVMcx5K_klGrxg&sig2=

    P4qvdv4my9QOn2im9ZyvFA&bvm=bv.121658157,d.amc

    © JERAD

    Related

    EFFECT OF ULTRASONIC NOISE ON HUMAN BODY

    In “Smart Meter News Updates”

    Electronic Noise Is Drowning Out the Internet of Things

    In “Smart Meter News Updates”

    Expert Panel finds that annoyance can be caused by wind turbine noise — a clear adverse health effect

    In “Smart Meter News Updates”

    By Sandaura • Posted in Smart Meter News Updates • Edit

  5. Jan 2016 Letter to Dept of Environment re “THE HUM”

    LETTER DELIVERED TO MR. GERRY FORDE, SENIOR ENGINEER, ENVIRONMENT, WEXFORD COUNTY COUNCIL BY ETHNA MONKS ON MONDAY 18th JANUARY 2016 RE: ‘THE HUM’.

    It has come to my notice that you have been asked to deal with the issue of ‘the hum’ by some members of the public who are suffering with the environmental impairment electrohypersensitivity (EHS) – some of these, as yet, are not aware that this is what their symptoms relate to.

    Since the vast accumulation of our modern technological gadgets we have all been more intensively subjected to an environment laden with electromagnetic fields (extremely low frequency and radio frequency fields or EMF/ELF/RF). It is estimated that our electromagnetic fields are now one million billion times greater than the natural electromagnetic background that has taken humans and other living organisms millions of years to adapt to. Since identifying the fact that my own unexplained ill health was related to EMF/ELF/RF I began to research this field of study along with its effects on health and the environment.

    I will not go on about this in a broad sense but will concentrate on ‘the hum’/noise/vibrations that thousands of people are now experiencing. Studies refer to this as the auditory perception of radiofrequency fields/microwave hearing, particularly pulsed or modulated microwaves, which travel through everything, including concrete, our homes and our bodies. Many consequential sufferers have no option but to move around, live in sheds or create noise that will mask ‘the hum’ 24/7, 365 days a year.

    The Government/Department of the Environment are aware of this auditory effect as it is mentioned in the ICNIRP guidelines that they base their standards of EMF/RF upon. ‘Microwave hearing’ is described in these guidelines as ‘stressful and potentially harmful’.

    I am not an expert in the mechanics of ‘the hum’ but my research advises that it stems from the emissions/resonances of mobile phone base stations and also from the way the powergrid is being used to enable our ‘smart’ society. The low frequency pulsing and modulations of signals from mobile phone base stations leads to acoustic resonances in the air and these can travel for miles. Also, the digital/smart grid, which is a two-way communication system (transmits/receives), has now been installed onto our electrical infrastructure/powerlines, which are traditionally a one-way system. As a result of this, our infrastructure has been turned into a huge antenna. Many problems related to ‘dirty electricity’ have emerged. Health problems issuing from both of these sources of EMF/RF i.e. mobile phone base stations and two-way wireless communication devices such as water and electricity meters placed on a one-way infrastructure, are now pervasive. The very serious levels of radiation, which are in the very atmosphere/environment we live in are irradiating all living things 24/7 and are bioactive and carcinogenic. Microwave hearers can sense these waves and pulses acoustically and physically.

    As a means of sharing knowledge I enclose references to some research papers that clearly demonstrate various levels of power density and their corresponding physical effects on humans. On the information produced by Arthur Firstenberg I have highlighted microwave hearing for your attention. For more in-depth study I would refer you to Allan Frey’s work Human Auditory System Response to Modulated Electromagnetic Energy (1962). It was Frey who originally discovered this phenomenon. An excellent broad paper is The Auditory Perception of Radio-frequency electromagnetic Fields by Chung-Kwang Chou and Arthur W. Guy. How the Hum works physically is well documented in the work of Ronald Seaman’s paper The Transmission of Intracranial Sound to the Inner Ear is Most Likely Through Cranial Aqueducts. Finally, I enclose information, simply called ‘the hum’ sourced from http://archive.is/vSMuu. Tables/diagrams omitted on this paper are available on the site. These research papers will provide you with broad knowledge regarding ‘the hum’.

    It will be extremely difficult to deal with this issue efficiently or even effectively as the truth about EMF (non-thermal, pulsed and continuous) health effects is being suppressed. Governments seem now to be managed by industry and the impending signing of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), can be seen as a threat to the preservation of legislation regarding public health and our environment. If signed, the country can be taken to court for ‘harming the investments’ of large corporations.

    You may respond to this information or not but please remember that children are being born today who will never know what silence is.

    Hope this was helpful, Ethna Monks

    Access to Tables:

    Table of Effects by SAR or POWER DENSITY – note under Power Density that Microwave Hearing occurs at 20mW/m2 and a number of scientific research papers are alluded to.

    http://www.emfwise.com/tableofeffects.php

    and the table of some biological effects of radio wave from: Arthur Firstenberg in his Radio Wave Packet, 2001, accessed from the Cellular Phone Task Force at:

    http://www.cellphonetaskforce.org/?page_id=32

    http://iervn.com/2016/02/22/jan-2016-letter-to-dept-of-environment-re-the-hum/

  6. To all those who stonewalled and obstructed the Massachusetts State Agencies, ie., Dept of Health, Dept, of environmental protection, Dept of public utilities, all taking part in obstructing the truth regarding the pollution on the grid. I say to you criminal, low lives, fuck you. I can only hope that your willful choices of not doing the right thing will come back on you and you will suffer the consequences of your decisions to cover up the truth about the noise pollution radiating on the power grid 24 hours a day non stop since 2006. My life has been torture trying to defend against an electromagnetic, illegal pure tone (s) penetrating my head and body relentlessly. I cannot inhabit a room without creating white noise to minimize the assault in my head and body. It has created a perpetual state of agitation and frustration. A constant negative reminder of an unattainable peace I once had.

    Fuck you, all and I hope you rot in hell or a place comparable. I would settle for suffering here on earth for the rest of your miserable lives. This is extends to the master minds who engineered this piece of shit you call the Smart Grid and all those who have anything to do with its function and profits.

    FUCK YOU ALL!

  7. The mystery of the humming house in Chesapeake
    mystery of the humming house in Chesapeake

    ◾By Victoria Bourne
    The Virginian-Pilot

    Victoria Bourne

    CHESAPEAKE

    It was around November, Charlie Buchanan says, when his house started humming.

    The sound is incessant, low-pitched and obnoxious, he said. The kind of hum that gets in the ears and under the skin. It’s driving him crazy, but even after 40 years as an electrician, Buchanan, 64, said he just cannot find the source.

    “I can fix almost anything,” he said at his house in Great Bridge. “But I can’t fix this hum.”

    The mystery has confounded a wide range of people in the last few months. Buchanan can hear it, but his wife can’t. Dominion Power has been out six times, but a spokeswoman said none of the workers can hear it, either. On a recent visit, a Pilot reporter and photographer both heard it – faint but steady, emanating from near a rear window in the corner of Buchanan’s bedroom.

    “You can hear it?” he said. “Whew!”

    Buchanan lives in Homestead Acres, a tidy neighborhood just off Benefit Road a few miles west of the Chesapeake Expressway and Edinburgh Shopping Center. When the noise first started, he thought it might be from inflatable Christmas decorations across the street. But when he checked, they weren’t running. The holidays came and went, but the sound remained.

    He asked on Facebook if anyone had any bright ideas on why his house might be humming. One reader wrote: “Because it doesn’t know the tune.”

    He determined that the noise is not generated from the cable or propane gas running into his house, and it’s not from a busted pipe. Few appliances run 24 hours a day – for example, the pump in his well water system kicks on and off – but he hears the hum all the time.

    A neighbor’s hot tub was one of the first potential sources for the noise, but Buchanan eliminated it by asking them to turn theirs off.

    He Googled theories like “magnetostriction” and “the harmonics of sound waves,” and put a hand and an ear to nearby telephone poles to feel for vibrations. He wonders if the issue is a transformer somewhere.

    http://pilotonline.com/news/local/the-mystery-of-the-humming-house-in-chesapeake/article_ace78dc6-0396-528a-8825-2e8ced1e8e7d.html

  8. High Voltage Power lines Radiation Sound Test

    Published on Sep 22, 2014

    High Voltage Power Lines Radiation readings, along with the sound to give you the full picture or ( insight) to just how far this reaches out from the actual wires…

    The sound should wake a few people up, it also gives a little more insight to the milligauss readings from the lower 1mg to the higher ones 30+ mg (milligauss)

    Anything over 3 mg is stated to be a very real danger to our bodies and will cause cell damage with prolong exposure.

    Check out my other videos of eagle ridge park high voltage power lines and look for the link about the milligauss chart.

    The multi meter is attached to the speaker wires and set to the frequency setting..

    I talked to one couple in the park after they approached me asking questions about what I was doing… and I explained the reasoning behind the dangers and the interruption of the very cell communication in our body’s from these power lines. He wound up being a complete smart asshole mostly the hole… Some people just don`t deserve to live in a civilized population😮

    Anyone smart enough to take a wild guess just how many electrons are passing through just one of those high voltage power lines ?

    Do some online searching to find out how many atoms are in the average adult, then do more reading to find out how many electrons are in those atoms. It will blow your mind…

  9. Infrasound Weapons Ultrasonic Forces, Chemtrails, Mind Control, Smart Meters, Fracking, Poisons

    Frederick Wüst Jr.

    Published on Jun 27, 2014

    Infrasound Weapons Ultrasonic Forces, Chemtrails, Mind Control, Smart Meters, Fracking, Poisons supernatural world of sound energy… Infrasound Weapons: Silent But Deadly

    The range of human hearing is quite limited. This is not a revelation to most people, as it is common knowledge that animals, including our household pets, are able to perceive frequencies of sound beyond that of their human owners. In fact, dog whistles and certain types of “invisible fences” are practical applications of this knowledge. These devices operate at a higher frequency than humans can audibly perceive, however, there is also a bottom threshold to human hearing, which is about 15 cycles per second. The area below this frequency is known as infrasound. Although infrasonic frequencies cannot be heard by people, they can be felt. Perhaps you’ve experienced pressure or vibrating in your chest generated by powerful subwoofers blasting out bass lines at a concert.

    At greater intensities, infrasound can make a person feel ill and disoriented. At even greater energies, infrasound can kill by causing the internal organs of a person to vibrate so violently that they rupture. Obviously any device that could generate infrasound at these energies would make a devious and lethal weapon.

    The reason sound waves can kill is that they carry energy. The sound waves caused by a powerful thunderclap, though miles distant, can not only startle a person, but can rattle dishes in cabinets and knock knick-knacks off shelves. That is because the sound waves still carry enough energy to disturb physical objects despite traveling such a distance.

    In 1957, while the Cold War was still quite heated, Dr. Vladimir Gavreau had assembled a team of researchers dedicated to developing robotic devices for a variety of military and industrial purposes. During work, the team would periodically fall victim to spells of nausea. Even those called upon to inspect the facility to determine the cause would experience the same ill feeling. Strangely, whenever the afflicted person or persons would step outside the building, the symptoms vanished. They found that opening the windows reduced the effect, but not did not eliminate it entirely. The mystery affliction persisted, causing a serious disruption of Gavreau’s work. Eventually, after other causes such as noxious vapors or compounds were ruled out, the culprit was determined to be a ventilation fan motor. Gavreau’s team knew the fan motor was the culprit, as direct exposure to it caused its victim to be ill for hours afterward, but they did not know why.

    The motor was causing vibrations of the air at 7 cycles per second, well into the infrasonic range. The sound from the fan motor could not be heard, but its effects were quite evident. Eventually they determined the infrasonic waves from the motor caused a resonance within the building. A resonance occurs when the frequency of sound is just right so that the peaks and troughs of the sound waves bouncing back and forth in a medium line up and reinforce each other. Thus, the peaks are higher and the troughs are deeper. The cavernous interior of the industrial building amplified the sound waves even more. When the thoughts of the group turned toward reproducing the effect through some type of self-contained, movable apparatus, the potential for weaponization became obvious. Experimentation produced a device utilizing large custom-built organ pipes, with the energy supplied first by a motor-driven piston, then by a pneumatic mechanism.

    Dr. Gavreau’s team tested the infrasonic device on themselves. The effects were almost immediate. First came intense pressure on the eyes and eardrums. Soon after, intense pain racked the entire body. Then the entire building, a massive and stout concrete structure, was shaken. One of the team members managed to switch off the power, despite being in excruciating pain. The group experienced altered vision and painful spasms throughout the body for days following that one brief test. In retrospect, it seems that if the device had been left on any longer, Dr. Gavreau and his team would have died right there and then, victims of their impatience to have empirical data on the effect of their new endeavor on living human beings. The team had also seriously miscalculated the power that would be generated by their device

  10. Ultrasonic Energy And Audible Noise

    The human ear cannot respond mechanically to airborne ultrasonic energy; it therefore is inaudible. The associated audible noise and lower frequency subharmonics can in extreme cases, be disturbing, causing hearing discomfort, occasionally nausea, and sometimes a temporary shift in the threshold of hearing (sound pressure level, or loudness, that can be heard).

    Many countries control the amount of audible noise that a worker can receive. In the United States 90 dBA (“A”= international “A” scale) noise level can be maintained continuously for 8 hours. Higher noise levels are permissible for shorter periods of time, typically:

    HEALTH EFFECTS OF ULTRASONIC ENERGY

    Cardiac Pacemakers and Ultrasonic Energy

    Pacemakers are not affected by airborne ultrasonic energy, but may be affected by electromagnetic energy. All equipment capable of generating ultrasonic energy also produces electromagnetic energy (usually in the radio frequency range). All Dukane ultrasonic equipment must comply with Federal Communications Commission regulations specifying limits on the conducted and radiated energy which may emanate from the equipment.

    There are many types and kinds of pacemakers. It is not known to what extent the different types are sensitive to various levels of electromagnetic energy. Until more is known about pacemaker reaction to R.F. emission, it would be prudent not to place workers with pacemakers near ultrasonic equipment. A report discussing R.F. emission is: “The Biological Significance of Radio Frequency Radiation Emission on Cardiac Pacemakers,”

    Report SAM-TR-76-4; USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base,

    Texas 78235.

    Ultrasonic Energy http://www.dukane.com/us/Documents/TechNote/US_HealthEffects.pdf

    __________________________________________________

    Fewa begins phasing out water meters

    The National staff

    January 31, 2016Updated: January 31, 2016 03:26 PM

    RAS AL KHAIMAH // The Federal Electricity and Water Authority has replaced 40,000 water meters with smart meters as part of phase one of a four-year upgrade plan.

    A total of 200,000 meters are expected to be replaced across Fewa-controlled areas as part of the plan to upgrade to highly accurate ultra-sonic smart meters that allow remote readings. The plan will affect 60,000 customers in RAK and 140,000 in other areas that use Fewa.

    Mohamad Saleh, director general of Fewa, said that if any new meter proved to be faulty, the bill would be waived and that any erroneous readings would lead to an immediate inspection.

    Technicians will inspect all meters using sophisticated lab equipment and bills will be formulated by comparing the lab results with past average consumption and the nature of use, The National’s Arabic sister paper, Al Ittihad, reported.

    Reports of excessive bills from complaining residents has led to calls for a quick replacement of meters.

    newsdesk@thenational.ae

  11. Bristol hum: Council investigates mystery noise

    There is nothing mysterious about the noise, any longer. I have written in the past that the noise has always been related to the power grid, industrial or otherwise. The reason why it goes away in localized locations is because it was fixed. or in one case the Pilot programs they were covertly operating regarding Broadband over Power lines had to be turned off and was considered a failure because of the noise and volatility. In this case, you have the Smart Grid, which relies on BPL/PLC, wired and wireless microwave RF pulsed signals, which is the backbone of the communication layer of the smart grid. This is a HUGE expense to fix! They will not fix this until there are numbers of outraged citizens. Right now, they are pissing on our complaints. Hence, we are not exposed to ubiquitous noise and radiation on the power lines, everywhere 24/7. This noise pollution is no joke. For those who hear this 24/7; it has ruined the quality of our lives…..Sandaura

    (Watch the video at the link below)
    ___________________________________________________________

    Bristol hum: Council investigates mystery noise

    ◾19 January 2016

    Bristol Hum is back, according to reports. But did it go away? In 1980, the council’s environmental health team investigated.

    Bristol City Council is looking into reports that a mysterious low-frequency noise which has plagued some residents of the city for decades is back.

    Since New Year, social media reports have surfaced of a low pitched hum, while others in the same area cannot hear it.

    Bristol City Council tried to measure the noise in April 1980 after scores of complaints, but the hum continues.

    “It was definitely humming away last night,” Sheila Masey told the BBC.

    Mrs Masey has lived in Staple Hill, north of Bristol, for 34 years. For the last 20 she has heard a “low rumbly hum”.

    It’s the not knowing what it actually is that drives me mental

    Jake

    “It’s not every night, but there are certain nights when you think: ‘Crikey, here we go’.

    “I wouldn’t say it wakes me up but if I can’t drop off to sleep and it happens to be there, then I’m always conscious of it.”

    She had thought it might be linked to factories in Filton.

    “It can get on your nerves at times but as it’s not all the time, you just accept it.”

    Jake, from Downend, wrote on BBC Points West’s Facebook page: “I hear it about 80% of nights … It’s changed pitch lately, it seems like an electrical buzz… It’s the not knowing what it actually is that drives me mental.”

    Complaints about low frequency noise date back to the 1970s but most people do not hear it and some are sceptical about whether it exists at all.

    ‘Occasionally receive complaints’

    It is one of many “hums” worldwide and there have been many theories about its cause. Last year the Bristol Post reported that French researchers believed it was caused by waves vibrating on the ocean floor.

    A Bristol City Council spokesman said: “We do occasionally receive complaints of hums from across the city.

    “We are currently investigating to see if there is any evidence to suggest the existence of a noise problem and whether any action can be taken. ”

    Lisa, from Clifton, heard the Hum at night, in 2013 and 2014, when she had her second child.

    “I thought it was me because I was very ‘sinusy’,” she said, adding she was “dumbfounded” to learn it was a local phenomenon.

    She described it as like a “really softly beaten giant drum”.

    “It’s easy to become, for periods, a little bit obsessed with the hum. You focus on it and, in the middle of the night, you find it difficult to screen out other noises.”

    http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-bristol-35353241

  12. Acoustic sound engineer hanged himself after fearing he would lose his job when he developed chronic tinnitus

    •Dr Mark Lawson, 43, of Reading, found hanged at Cardinal Clinic, Windsor
    •He visited specialist unit for treatment for anxiety due to hearing condition
    •Inquest in Reading told he feared tinnitus was ’cause of everything wrong’
    •Friends described him as ‘very intelligent, clever and caring man’

    By Joseph Curtis For Mailonline
    Published: 17:32 EST, 15 December 2015 | Updated: 19:07 EST, 15 December 2015

    An accomplished acoustic sound engineer hanged himself after fearing he would lose his job after he developed chronic tinnitus, an inquest heard.

    Dr Mark Lawson, who had a PhD in acoustics, felt ‘desperate’ after developing the condition and feared he would have hearing problems ‘for life.’

    The 43-year-old, of Reading, Berkshire, became extremely anxious about the ringing in his ears and refused to take medication to calm his mood for fear it would exacerbate the tinnitus.

    The inquest at Reading Town Hall, pictured, heard Dr Bedford had become ‘extremely anxious’ about the ringing in his ears and refused to take medication for anxiety in case it made his condition worse

    He was voluntarily admitted to a specialist unit to treat his tinnitus-induced anxiety, but was found dead in his room five days later during the afternoon nurse changeover.

    Senior coroner for Berkshire Peter Bedford was told Dr Lawson had gone to see his GP in June reporting hearing problems, stress and sleeping problems.

    He was recommended an anti-depressant and referred for cognitive behaviour treatment but only took the drug briefly before blaming it for his worsening tinnitus.

    Dr Lawson had spent time in online tinnitus forums and would meticulously research any new drug medics prescribed, the inquest in Reading was told.

    If he found tinnitus listed as a potential side effect, he would refuse to take the drugs, even though he had been persuaded to spend a few days at the private Cardinal Clinic in Windsor, Berkshire.

    Staff said he refused to recognise he was suffering from anxiety, instead demanding to see ear, nose and throat specialists or to be taken to A&E.

    Dr Maurice Atkins, a consultant psychiatrist, told the Berkshire coroner that Dr Lawson had constantly ‘battled’ with nurses, adding: ‘I think he was trying to tell us that this tinnitus was always the cause of everything wrong with him.

    ‘He felt that it had come on while at work and it seemed to be unremitting.

    ‘He felt it would stop him working. He was quite logical, he said with no salary, he’d lose his house.’

    The inquest heard Dr Lawson had blown a problem at work out of proportion, feeding into his worries he would lose his job and remained obstructive and resistant to treatment, taking his prescribed medications only very sporadically.

    On the day of his death he had taken a new pill to calm his anxiety, which Dr Atkins said he had largely given him as he simply wanted to offer him ‘something he hadn’t Googled.’

    However hours later nurse Dawn Clarke, carrying out one of the two hourly checks on Dr Lawson, found him dead in his unlocked bedroom.

    Despite the efforts of her colleague George Garang, emergency staff and a doctor from an air ambulance, he was unable to be saved.

    A post mortem examination gave a cause of death as hanging.

    Mr Bedford said it was clear Dr Lawson had been an intelligent man but had an obsessional nature.

    ‘It seems that he would not simply accept medical treatment without thoroughly researching it,’ he said.

    ‘He was extremely reluctant to take medical advice and particularly to take medication.

    ‘His focus, particularly to the end of his life, was tinnitus. It appears he believed the medicines he had been given caused the tinnitus.

    ‘It seems to me there was a vicious cycle and that tinnitus was a symptom. It was particularly relevant to Mark because of working in acoustics. It’s very credible to me that he would be extremely anxious about that.’

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3361517/Acoustic-sound-engineer-hanged-fearing-lose-job-developed-chronic-tinnitus.html

    The coroner said it was an ‘awful irony’ both that Dr Lawson had expressed thoughts of suicide to friends and family – but not to the medical staff trying to treat his crisis.

    Recording a conclusion of suicide, Mr Bedford said: ‘It was a very confusing sequence of events with no obvious opportunity or signals that might in hindsight have raised concerns.

    ‘A shocking end with no obvious sign other than Mark’s thoughts about tinnitus as a long-term problem and the effects on him personally.

    ‘The only reason Mark thought he was in the clinic was to treat the ringing in his ears.

    ‘The conclusion is that he took his own life while suffering from anxiety caused by his described symptom of unremitting tinnitus.’

    Speaking after the inquest a friend, who asked not to be named, said hearing problems would not have stopped Dr Lawson doing his job but would have made a difference to his work.

    ‘He was a very intelligent, clever and caring man,’ he said.

    ‘He had a very brave face so it was very difficult to get to the reasons behind sometimes. He will be deeply missed.’

    No family attended the hearing.

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3361517/Acoustic-sound-engineer-hanged-fearing-lose-job-developed-chronic-tinnitus.html

  13. High Frequency Harmonics Emission in Smart Grids
    Jaroslaw Luszcz
    Additional information is available at the end of the chapter
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/52874
    Provisional chapter

    Additional information is available at the end of the chapter
    1. Introduction
    The term ‘smart grid‘, is nowadays very often used in many publications and so far has not been explicitly defined, however it refers mainly to such an operation of electricity delivery process that allows to optimize energy efficiency by flexible interconnection of central and distributed generators through transmission and distribution system to industrial and consumer end-users [1], [3], [11], [13], [15], [17]. This functionality of power delivery
    system requires the use of power electronic converters at generation, consumer and grid operation levels. Harmonic pollution generated by power electronics converters is one of the key problems of integrating them compatibly with the power grid, especially when its rated power is high with relation to the grid’s short-circuit power at connection point [18], [19], [20].
    Contemporary power electronics converters has already reached rated power of several MW and are integrated even at the distribution level directly to medium voltage (MV) grid. Power electronics technologies used nowadays in high power and MV static converter increase the switching frequency significantly due to the availability of faster power electronic switches which allows to increase power conversion efficiency and decrease harmonic and inter-harmonic current distortion in frequency range up to 2 kHz. This trend
    significantly increases harmonic emission spectrum towards higher frequencies correlated with modulation frequency of switching conversion of power. Therefore typical harmonic analysis up to 2 kHz in many power electronics application requires to be extended up to frequency of 9 kHz which is the lowest frequency of typical electromagnetic interference
    analysis interest.

    Numerous problems related to current and voltage harmonic effects on contemporary power systems are commonly observed nowadays, also in frequency range 2−9 kHz. Levels and spectral content of current distortions injected into electric power grids are tending to increase despite the fact that the acceptable levels are determined by numerous
    regulations [2], [3], [7], [9], [12], [14], [16]. In recent years many of grid-side PWM boost converters of relatively high rated power have been introduced into power grid because of many advantages, like for example:

    2 Power Quality current harmonics limitation, reactive power compensation and bidirectional power flow.

    Implementation of smart grids idea will conceivably increase this tendency because of the need for bidirectional flow control of high power in many places of distribution and transmission power grid.
    Typical carrier frequencies used in AC-DC PWM boost converters are within a range from single kHz for high power application up to several tens of kHz for small converters. Important part of conducted emission spectrum generated by those types of converters is located in frequency range below 2 kHz normalized by power quality regulations and above 9 kHz normalized by low frequency EMC regulation (especially CISPR A band 9kHz-150kHz). In between those two frequency ranges typically associated with power quality (PQ) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) respectively, where a characteristic gap of standard regulations still exists, the conducted emission of grid-connected PWM converters can be highly disturbing for other systems. Current and voltage ripples produced by grid-connected PWM converters can propagate through LV grids and even MV grids, where converters of power of few MW are usually connected. Filtering of this kind of conducted emission will require a new category of EMI filters with innovative spectral attenuation characteristic which is difficult to achieve by just adaptation of solutions that are already in use for current harmonics filtering for PQ improvement and radio frequency interference (RFI) filters used
    for EMC assurance.
    2. Harmonic emissions of non-linear loads into power grid
    Harmonics content defined for currents and voltages is an effect of its non sinusoidal wave-shape. Power electronics switching devices used in power conversion process like diodes, thyristors and transistors change its impedance rapidly according to line or PWM commutation pattern and produce non sinusoidal voltages and currents which are required to perform the power conversion process properly. Unfortunately, these non sinusoidal currents, as a results of internal commutation process in a converter, are also partly injected into the power grid as an uninvited current harmonic emission. Non sinusoidal load currents charged from power grid produce voltage harmonic distortions in power grid which can influence all other equipment connected to that grid because of the existence of grid impedance. This mechanism results that non-linear current of one equipment can be harmful for other equipment supplied from the same grid and also for the grid itself, like e.g. transformers, transmission lines. A frequency spectrum range of harmonic distortions introduced into power grid can be exceedingly wide, nevertheless the maximum frequency range which is usually analysed is defined by CISPR standard as 30MHz. Between 9kHz and 30MHz two frequency sub-bands are defined as CISPR A up to 150kHz and CISPR B above 150kHz (Figure 1). These two frequency rages are well known as conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) ranges, where harmonic components of common mode voltages or currents are limited to levels defined by a number of standards. In general, despite some specific cases, amplitudes of harmonic distortions observed in typical applications decrease with the increase of frequency, stating from several or tens percent in frequencies close to the power frequency and reach levels of only microvolts or microamps for the end frequency of conducted frequency band 30MHz. Unfortunately, even so small voltage and current amplitudes can be really harmful, disturbing, and difficult to 278 Power Quality Issues High Frequency Harmonics Emission in Smart Grids 3 filter because of relatively high frequency which results with easiness of propagation by means of omnipresent parasitic capacitive couplings. Frequency [Hz]
    Magnitudes
    DC 50/60 2k 9k 150k 30M
    Harmonics Conducted EMI
    Subharmonics
    uV
    mV
    V
    kV
    PQ, THD CISPR A CISPR B
    Figure 1. Harmonic distortions frequency sub-ranges.
    On the other hand, typical harmonic distortion components which are usually recommended for analysing and solving PQ problems by standards are within frequency range up to 2kHz.

    In this frequency range integer multiples of the fundamental power frequency (50Hz or 60Hz) harmonic components are defined usually up to 40th order.
    Consideration of conducted emissions and harmonic distortions in these frequency bands: one up to 2kHz and second 9kHz − 30MHz, were sufficient enough in last years in applications with classic line-commutated rectifiers and switch mode DC power supplies which are also fed by this type of rectifiers. During the last decades, with the increase of the rated power of single power supplies and increasing number of power supplies
    used the increased difficulties with acceptable current harmonic emission levels arise and other technologies like PWM boost rectifiers have been intensively introduced. The PWM modulation carrier frequency used in such applications is often within the range of 2−9kHz or adjacent ranges, which results with the significant increase of harmonic emission in this
    frequency range what will be discussed in the next sections of this chapter.
    3. Harmonic distortions emission of grid-connected power electronics
    converters Harmonic distortion emission is commonly understood as harmonics produced by non-linear loads, usually power electronics converters in the frequency range up to 2kHz which are strongly related to some of the power quality indices. From this point of view (PQ) harmonic
    distortion emission in the frequency range above 2kHz can be named as high frequency harmonics emission. On the other hand, from the EMC point of view, the conducted EMI emission below 9kHz is usually defined as low frequency EMC conducted emission.

    The frequency map of different harmonic emissions, usually considered as conducted type emissions which are mainly propagating by conduction process along power lines, is presented in Figure 2. From this prospective we can distinguish three primary types of harmonic distortion emission of typical sources which can be associated to particular power electronics converters topologies and technologies. These are:

    Read full paper at: http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/44202.pdf

  14. THIS IS NOT THE TYPE OF NOISE THAT ONE CAN FIX OR ESCAPE FROM. THE ADVICE OUT THERE IS NOT SPECIFICALLY ADDRESSING THIS ISSUE! adapting to this noise is not a solution nor does it replace an environment free of pure tone constant noise….Sandaura

    Quieting Down Could Save Billions in Heart Disease Costs

    June 20, 2015 | 45,098 views

    EXCERPTS
    Beyond Your Heart: How Noise Pollution Harms Your Health

    Noise pollution can harm your health in many ways, aside from harming your heart health and leading to hearing loss. Many of these are just beginning to be explored. For instance, a study on pregnant women found exposure to noise pollution may lead to lower birth weight.13

    Research also suggests long-term exposure to noise pollution may have an effect on cognitive development in children and cognitive and psychological functions in adults, although more research is needed in this area.14 One study of traffic wardens in Pakistan, who are exposed to noise levels between 85-106 decibels, found significant physio-psychological effects due to traffic noise pollution, including:15

    Aggravated depression: 58% Stress: 65% Public conflict: 71%
    Irritation and annoyance: 54% Behavioral affects: 59% Speech interference: 56%.
    Hypertension: 87% Muscle tension: 64% Exhaustion: 48%
    Low performance levels: 55% Concentration loss: 93% Hearing impairment: 69%
    Headache: 74% Cardiovascular issue: 71%

    Chronic psychological distress can cause suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and thus lead to male hypogonadism [a condition in which the body doesn’t produce enough testosterone], which is associated with psycho-social dysfunction, chronic diseases, and as a result, considerable economic costs.

    Conversely, noise is a prototypal environmental stressor of growing importance, already linked to birth outcomes and diabetes. However, its effects on male testosterone levels have been paid little attention … Research on humans is highly warranted, especially given the steady trend in Western societies for increasing the burden of both male hypogonadism and noise pollution.”

    http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/06/20/noise-pollution.aspx

  15. this paper highlights the negative biological effect constant noise has on the human body. It has been 9 years of ongoing acoustic assault. Every waking and sleeping hour of the day and night hearing this disgusting, insidious noise. I say fuck you to all those who have ignored and dismissed your responsibility, especially, those who are in a position to do something about this public health hazard. fuck you and I hope karma will wreak equal havoc upon your sick fucked up souls.

    Journal of Environmental and Public Health
    Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 235618, 7 pages
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/235618

    Research Article

    Involuntary and Persistent Environmental Noise Influences Health and Hearing in Beirut, Lebanon

    Marjaneh M. Fooladi1,2,3

    1Council for International Exchange of Scholars, A Division of the Institute of International Education, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Suite 5-L, Washington, DC 20008, USA
    2College of Nursing, Florida State University, Vivian M. Duxbury Hall, 98 Varsity Way, P.O. Box 3064310, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4310, USA
    3School of Nursing, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
    Received 9 June 2011; Revised 31 July 2011; Accepted 11 August 2011
    Academic Editor: Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    Copyright © 2012 Marjaneh M. Fooladi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  16. Blocking the Hum with Shielding

    Posted on April 2, 2014 by Dr. Glen MacPherson

    I’ve explained numbers of times that if the Hum is caused in part by VLF transmissions, then simple shielding or Faraday cages will not block it. VLF radio waves can deeply penetrate many materials, including up to a full inch of solid aluminum. After examining a list of materials and their properties, I discovered that mild steel (as opposed to other types) has an ideal combination of properties for creating a Hum shield. The good news is that a thin 1.2 mm layer of mild steel should do the job. There is a catch, however. VLF waves are very good a finding their way through cracks and openings in any container, and therefore the shielding must not only be total, but the welding has to be excellent. This raises concerns about how to get fresh air, light, and other necessities of life into the box/container so that volunteer participants can be comfortable.

    Solving the above technical issue is a first step in moving toward the first formal and controlled experiments on the Hum.

    https://hummap.wordpress.com/2014/04/02/blocking-the-hum-with-shielding/

  17. Humsick
    # Posted: 3 Oct 2012 00:04
    Reply Quote

    I live in the north western part of the United States. I started hearing this soon after a smart meter was installed last year. Some hum sufferers here believe that the hum is caused by the smart grid consisting of Broadband over power line, known as BPL or PLC, along with the devices that “communicate” with the grid.

    Broadband over Power Lines — how bad an idea can you get?

    Fred Goldstein, July 2004

    It no doubt sounds reasonably attractive at first. An additional competitive source of broadband Internet access to the home, courtesy of the power lines. Broadband Power Line carrier (BPL) has attracted the attention of investors and regulators. Several companies have introduced products, and trials are under way in several places. So what’s the problem?

    But a better way to frame the question is to ask, what’s not a problem? BPL is a truly wacky idea, but in the bad sense, one of those half-baked concepts that would never get off the ground if regulators and investors understood what they were talking about! The idea is to take digital information and modulate it, using wideband spreading techniques, across the shortwave radio spectrum (3-30 MHz, also known as High Frequency, or HF) and feed it onto high-voltage power transmission lines, and put similar transmitters in the neighborhoods for the return path. The sad part is that it kind of works. Sort of. But then, so does dumping one’s raw sewage into the nearest river. Both move the goods, but both cause pollution in the process.

    Transmission lines are not all transmission lines
    BPL’s main problem is that it attemtps to use power transmission lines, designed to carry 60 Hz high-power electricity, as radio transmission lines. Those are two very different tasks! As frequencies rise, alternating current waves become more and more prone to radiate away from their transmission lines. At 60 Hz, this is not a sereious problem. But once frequencies get up into the Megahertz range, it’s mighty serious indeed. Power lines, which are untwisted pairs usually separated by some matter of feet, are not shielded, or in any way designed to confine radio waves that they might happen to be carrying. They act as big antennas. This effect can be used advantageously: Many “carrier-current” radio transmitters depend on the inevitable leakage of power wiring to distribute unlicensed broadcasting, legally, around college campuses, tunnels, and other defined spaces.

    This is in marked contrast with, say, coaxial cable, whose outer layer is usually a grounded shield designed specifically to isolate the signal being carried from its environment. Coaxial cable is designed to be a radio frequency transmission line. Telephone cable is tightly twisted (hence the moniker “twisted pair”) which delivers similar shielding at lower frequencies. That’s how DSL, which actually goes into the AM broadcast spectrum, works. Ironically, power lines probably have less attenuation than coax, and thus can carry radio waves a longer distance without regeneration, because they are so big. But for the most part they’re too big to shield. The low attenuation theoretically makes BPL potentially attractive in suburban areas, though it is unlikely to be useful in rural areas that currently lack any broadband access.

    So as a result of this lack of shielding, BPL emits radio frequency interference. Lots of it, and — being “broadband” — across lots of frequencies. Americans aren’t the world’s most avid shortwave radio listeners, to be sure, but if they were, then they’d rapidly notice that BPL systems put out noise all across the shortwave broadcasting bands. They put noise across the HF amateur radio bands. Early tests of BPL have confirmed the worst, too: The noise isn’t just a tiny increase in the background noise floor. It’s often loud enough to basically obliterate almost everything else! It’s within legal limits for unintentional radiation, but those rules were written with the expectation that the unintentional radiator would be a narrowband signal in a single location, not broadband along the entire power line. And it is not currently permissible to cause serious interference to a licensed user of the spectrum, even within those limits. But the BPL industry has asked the FCC to raise the current limits on permitted interference by several orders of magnitude.

    Politicians who support BPL are taking advantage of the fact that almost everyone nowadays makes some use of the Internet, while the HF radio spectrum’s users are relatively few. Government and military agencies are major users of that part of the radio spectrum, and they’re not happy about BPL’s interference potential! The National Telecommunications and Information Agency (NTIA), the Department of Commerce office that coordinates government spectrum usage (essentially on a peer-to-peer basis with the FCC, which nominally only regulates how non-government spectrum is used), has expressed its opposition. So did the Federal Emergency Managment Agency (FEMA), though, curiously, they later backed off of their strong opposition, raising some suspicions of political intervention. But the FCC is pressing ahead with rule revisions to permit BPL, under its nominal authority to regulated unintended emissions.

    Amateur radio and shortwave listening are seen as the province of a small number of aging geeks, and will be most severely impacted, since already-legal BPL interference levels are above “S9” across their frequency bands. The lack of shielding works both ways, too: BPL is quite prone to interference from nearby radio transmitters. Legally, a licensed transmitter takes absolute precedence over an unlicensed emitter. But what would be the political fallout of a ham radio operator whose station, operating legally, degraded his neighbors’ BPL Internet connectivity? Presuming, of course, that the ham operator could remain on the HF bands at all, given all of the noise. BPL companies have tried to notch out ham radio bands from their systems, to reduce interference, albeit not very successfully; they are likely to still be susceptible to interference. Likewise, power companies testing BPL have sometimes tried to clean up their power lines in order to reduce the effects of interference that occurs from other sources, be it lightning or other transmitters. But they have not been very successful.

    In the late 1970s, personal computers began to catch on, and many of the early ones had similar problems with unintentional radiation. The FCC of that era stepped in and imposed strict emissions limits on computing devices, the now well-established “Class A” and “Class B” certifications. This was costly to the computer industry; Radio Shack, for one, had to redesign its popular but extremely noisy TRS-80 computers and use metallic shielding, not just a cheap plastic case. The current FCC, on the other hand, seems to be going to the opposite extreme, encouraging the widespread deployment of devices that may generate far more interference than any ordinary PC.

    The FCC holds regular auctions of radio spectrum in order licenses services like wireless telephony, video distribution, and radio paging. Yet BPL is a gift of the entire HF radio spectrum to a handful of electric utilities. Are we seeing yet another power play by the energy sector, which seems to be so dominant in the Bush-Cheney administration?

    Not a good alternative to common carriage
    The other main reason that FCC Chairman Michael Powell is supporting BPL seems to be in order to provide some cover for his ferociously anti-competitive telecom policies. The Telecom Act was supposed to open up access to the networks. Earlier rules, such as 1980’s Computer II ruling, required telephone companies to offer nondiscriminatory access to their networks to information service providers. In other words, they could not reserve their monopoly lines for their own competive affiliates. Without that ruling, the public Internet might not have been possible. Powell is not only trying to roll back the Telecom Act with the cutoff of many unbundled network elements to CLECs, but (in CC Docket 02-33) he’s trying to remove the entire common carrier obligation from ILEC-provided “broadband” services. Thus independent ISPs won’t even be able to buy raw DSL service any more. The only provider of information over the twisted-pair network will be the ILEC or its chosen affilliates. The cable network will be one alternative, but it has never been common carriage, and usually only offers one ISP. Absent the competitive pressures of common-carriage DSL, can all cable operators be expected to avoid taking advantage of the reduced level of competition?

    Powell’s favorite type of competition is intermodal. It assumes that there are mulitple physical pipes — cable, telephone, power line, satellite, radio — and that this is sufficient competition to allow the owners of the most-regulated pipe — telephone wire — to be deregulated in a manner never before even seriously contemplated. The only CLECs, in this model, are those who hang their own wire on the poles; ISPs can either strike a private deal with the owner of a physical pipe or hang up their servers. Radio spectrum bandwidth is quite finite — wireless Internet access is almost certainly going to be too costly for widespread fixed use in urban areas, and spectrum policies would need to be drastically rewritten in order to find the bandwidth needed. (To their credit, some people inside the FCC organization are trying to do just that, but it’s an uphill struggle and at best years away from fruition.) Satellites suffer from speed-of-light delays (300 kilometers per millisecond: It’s not just a good idea, it’s the law!) So BPL is a theoretical way to break the duopoly just enough to permit more deregulation. The FCC has made clear that BPL will not be common carriage. It will be entirely the private matter of the power company, not available to any old ISP.

    But even if that were acceptable, BPL’s techical issues remain serious. Security, for one thing — unless it’s encrypted, everyone’s signals will be detectable all over.

    http://www.mast-victims.org/forum/index.php?action=vthread&forum=3&topic=285&page=11


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