Posted by: Sandaura | March 23, 2011

A CONSTANT, NON STOP “PULSED” LOW RADIO FREQUENCY HUM AND DRONE RADIATING FROM GLOBAL SMART GRID MESH NETWORK!

FINGERPRINT OF 217Hz-SOURCE OF NOISE

WE ARE ALL BEING EXPOSED TO THE BIGGEST AVOIDABLE HEALTH HAZARD IN  THE  HISTORY OF OUR PLANET! 

THE GLOBAL SMART GRID SYNDROME

PLEASE CONTACT US @ globalrfrdefenseteam@verizon.net

Site Updated Daily

We have published this blog for victims who are hearing a constant noise inside as well as outside.  I am coining the term, “SMART GRID SYNDROME” WHEN REFERRING TO THE SYMPTOMS WE ARE EXPERIENCING.  WE ARE ALL EXPOSED  TO THE EMR NOISE AND RADIATION, RESULTING IN THE EMISSIONS OF THE GLOBAL SMART GRID NETWORK.  After visiting forums and  reading several blogs related to this particular noise(s), we found that people, in general, are seeking answers as to what is happening to them and are desperate for the truth.   One blog was consistent with the descriptors of what we have been describing to the State of Massachusetts.  We have confirmed it is a microwave pulsation accompanied by   “pure tones”,  illegal in our State of  Massachusetts. The Regulations were adopted from the EPA  who studied pure tone noise and in 1972 determined it to be a noxious air pollutant, thus being a human health hazard.  Whether proven to be a pure tone or not; it is a nuisance and it is trespassing on and in to your home and the source is the utilities who are leaking carcinogenic microwave frequencies they are injecting through power lines for the Smart Grid communication layer of the global network.  The power lines were designed to transmit electricity.  They are using broadband, Dsl, Wi-Fi, wired, unwired, Sat, cell; whatever they choose to use because they have many options on how to operate the Smart Grid Network.  The noise is a by-product of the Radio Frequency interference, radiation and dirty power riding on the wires and radiating through every outlet in to your home, school and workplace.  The constant pounding of these modulated pulsed signals is biologically invasive to all who are exposed to it and produce serious negative symptoms. Thousands of Medical studies prove this a Public Health Hazard.

DEFINITION OF NOISE   “Noise is an unwanted or objectionable sound”   VERY IMPORTANT!!  When trying to explain this NOISE be aware that the ignorant, be them experts, professionals or not, the noise is incorrectly defined  if it is described as just a sound.  IT IS AN UNWANTED OR OBJECTIONABLE SOUND.  MUSIC IS SOUND, EVERYTHING THAT YOU CAN HEAR IS A SOUND.  THIS is a noise from hell, manmade, radio frequency signals that are leaking into our air causing them to bounce, reflect, enabling them to be heard in  the human hearing range.  These are illegal pure tones (pure tones are extremely rare and not normally found in our environment) and damage  hearing with prolonged exposure.  This is an unprecedented event that has never occurred  for, historically, mankind has never before lived with wireless/bio active microwaves leaking in the air.  How could anyone even fathom such a disaster and that we would be expected to live and be perpetually exposed to this hazardous pollution in our daily lives, 24 hours, day and night, against our will, without permission, with no way to escape it?  The dismissal  of our pleas for help and evidence by our local, State and Federal Governments,  the lack of empathy and desire to do anything about it,  even by victims who are aware and suffering from this technology, is unconscionable.  Without  personal responsibility there will be no resolution or  accountability of the crimes being perpetrated on our Society.  Sickness and death is inevitably the result of doing nothing.

THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR HEARERS TO UNDERSTAND.  IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO ALL OTHERS WHO DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE OF WHAT WE ARE HEARING AND TINNITUS.  TINNITUS IS DEFINED AS SUCH: Tinnitus is an auditory sensation characterized by the perception of sound or noise in the absence of any external sound source. Based on neurobiological research, it is generally accepted that most forms of tinnitus are attributable to maladaptive plasticity due to damage to auditory system. Changes have been observed in auditory structures such as the inferior colliculus, the thalamus and the auditory cortex as well as in non-auditory brain areas. However, the observed changes show great variability, hence lacking a conclusive picture. One of the reasons might be the selection of inhomogeneous groups in data analysis.  (EXCERPT FROM: The Differences in Brain Activity between Narrow Band Noise and Pure Tone Tinnitus Published: October 27, 2010  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013618)

 Cause of the Hum Broadcasting on Power lines (Forensic evidence below and in the forensic fingerprint at top of page)

Proof of Hum on Power lines and the Source of World Wide Public Health Hazard

Proof of Hum on Power lines and the Source of World Wide Public Health Hazard

Our research/investigation has been ongoing since 2006 when the Utilities turned on the Global Smart Grid Network in our town.  The reason for the investigation is due to the Constant noise being heard in our home and around our town.  We have conclusive forensic evidence that ponts to the 902-928MHz unlicensed frequency band being used across the country and Canada to operating the mesh communication layer of the Global Smart Grid Network.  The ARRL in the U.S. and Canada have filed numerous complaints siting the utilities are violating the FCC part 15 rules.  This links our evidence of the 217Hz, which is the audible illegal pure tone measured as per the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection.  Our evidence proves a constant tone in our environment, man-made, not allowed in our air as per the EPA  Clean Air Act, which were adopted by Massachusetts in 1990.  The 217Hz is a demodulated pulsed frequency transmitting in concert with 902-928MHz spectrum for communication with the Smart meters.  Our 1/3 octave measurements taken as per MAdep protocol was confirmed by an acoustic engineer revealing the 217Hz is an illegal pure tone, (pulsing also occurs at 8.34Hz)it is in exceedence of the MA Noise pollution Laws. The expert stated the frequency is within human hearing range and would cause a disturbance, especially at night.   We also have the affidavit of A certified Forensic Audio engineer who also confirmed the constant noise is the 217Hz, a modulating pulse.  The measurements taken at our home, 5 miles away from our home and during a major power outage were all identical fingerprints. This is the evidence the Massachusetts Regulatory agencies have in their possession and have blatantly ignored and dismissed by closing the investigation for the 3rd time!  The MA Department of Environmental Protection would not hire their own expert to do overnight pure tone measurements.  They would not include the FCC in the investigation.  They deferred to the utilities to do the overnight pure tone studies.  The utility, National Grid, botched the overnight testing, both, in our home and outside where they placed the meters.  The MA Department of Environment Protection, Department of Public Health and the Department of Public Utilities did not come back to do the overnight pure tone testing as per their testing design.  Instead, they closed our case with no reasonable explanation.

National Grid, USA and other utilities across the country “turned on” in 2006- the 2 way communication fixed and wired AMI network.  Nationl Grid uses the Landis GYR TS-2 AMI technology.  THIS IS WHEN THE CONSTANT NOISE STARTED RADIATING IN OUR AIR;  Carried by the interconnected power grid; turning the wires into one big continuous antenna and electromagnetic weapon!!!  This must be stopped.  Time for our engineers, professionals, experts to pay attention to the biggest death weapon directed at the entire population while assaulting us with NOISE, DIRTY ELECTRICITY 24/7.

Latest research in Germany points to mobile communication radio waves (base station antennas) as source of the hum. The hum is not caused by the cell phones themselves but by the emissions of the base stations (antennas) transported over the air interface.
The low frequent pulsing and modulations of the signals lead to acoustic resonance in buildings. http://archive.is/vSMuu

Bees are frequency-sensitive, like all living organisms: TIMELINE OF THE BEES, BATS BIRDS DEMISE IS LATE 2006=EARLY 2007.  THE TIME LINE IS EXACTLY THE TIME NATIONAL GRID TURNED ON THEIR PERSONAL WIRELESS MESH NETWORK LAYER FOR THE SMART GRID IN OUR TOWN ON MT WILCOX.  LATE FULL/EARLY WINTER THE NOISE BEGAN AND THE NEGATIVE SIDE EFFECTS AS WELL DUE TO THE PULSED SIGNAL FROM THE BASE STATION TRANSMITTING THE 217Hz. There was and is no other cell tower within 5 miles of our home, so this explains why our cell phone works if you face it toward the north in the direction of Mt. Wilcox.  The Antenna, data collector, tower, what ever they choose to call it is filed under the FCC as Personal Mobile.  There is nothing personal about it.  The end user is not the public. It is for corporate use.  Why aren’t these antennas under investigation by the FCC.  They are in violation of the FCC Part 15.   National Grid and all utilities using this wireless protocol is in violation of the clean air act.  They are radiating EMR noise pollution that is harming all living things.

Read an excerpt below: There may indeed be more than one ‘hum’, but since bees are so sensitive to particular frequencies, this is a worthwhile route for research, especially if hives resonate in response to the now all-pervasive EM fields. This is why the HUM we are describing in not related to The Historic HUM Mystery. As stated many times in research studies Hum typically occurs in regional clusters, and rarely within large metropolitan areas. Here is the link to read the full report. http://arizonaskywatch.com/?topic=haarp-and-birds-and-bees-04152007 The Modern Day Hum we have time lined since 2006 is being heard everywhere, not in pockets, clusters or regions. Our registry of people who are hearing the noise we describe are located all across the United States and World. Cities, rural, urban and the like all can hear the Noise we describe and it is a current timeline. The pockets or clusters of the hum, some explained and some still left a mystery could be related to electromagnetic inference and the emissions could have been radiating on the power lines as well, but the reason this is ubiquitous is because of the pulsed RF signals of the wireless devices being employed by the PLC mesh layer of the Global Automated metering infrastructure, which all or most of the population is exposed to.

Our Recordings identify both the hum and the drone:

It is interesting to reflect that many people complain of ‘the hum’, relating electromagnetic sources with an apparently acoustic phenomenon.  GSM mobile phone systems produce a structural pulse frequency of 217Hz; pulsing also occurs at 8.34Hz.  The 8.34Hz is the source of the droning drum-like very low frequency vibration.  I hear both simultaneously 24/7.  You may  hear one or the other or both.

[Excerpt from smartmeterdangers.org]
 SMD Note: Smart meters utilize a 912 MHz frequency and emit pulsed rf radiation 24/7, with full body exposures at up to 160x that of cell phones (Hirsch, 2011). This is an example of thousands of studies that show this is dangerous to the public health. 

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P Esmekaya MA et al, (December 2010) Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: a light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study, Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Dec;86(12):1106-16. Epub 2010 Sep 1

In the present study we investigated the possible histopathological effects of pulse modulated Radiofrequency (RF) fields on the thyroid gland using light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. Two months old male Wistar rats were exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated RF radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.35 Watt/kg for 20 min/day for three weeks. The RF signals were pulse modulated by rectangular pulses with a repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a duty cycle of 1:8 (pulse width 0.576 ms). To assess thyroid endocrine disruption and estimate the degree of the pathology of the gland, we analysed structural alterations in follicular and colloidal diameters and areas, colloid content of the follicles, and height of the follicular epithelium. Apoptosis was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and assessing the activites of an initiator (caspase-9) and an effector (caspase-3) caspases that are important markers of cells undergoing apoptosis. Morphological analyses revealed hypothyrophy of the gland in the 900 MHz RF exposure group. The results indicated that thyroid hormone secretion was inhibited by the RF radiation. In addition, we also observed formation of apoptotic bodies and increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in thyroid cells of the rats that were exposed to modulated RF fields. The overall findings indicated that whole body exposure to pulse-modulated RF radiation that is similar to that emitted by global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones can cause pathological changes in the thyroid gland by altering the gland structure and enhancing caspase-dependent pathways of apoptosis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20807179
entire article for individual use:
http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/Tiroides_Pulse_modulated_900_MHz_radiation_induce_hypothyroidism_and_apoptosis.pdf

Beyond ear perception, the radiation is also otherwise physically noticed by humans. Reasons that speak for mobile communication as source of the hum:
– correlations between peoples´ reports of first hearing the hum and the setup of antennas in their neighborhood, clearly demonstrable in small towns and villages; increase of the phenomenon parallels setup of antennas;
– physical complaints of hum sufferers are the same as the symptoms that are reported for radio wave sickness
– measurements show artificial signals in the ELF-range; qualitative signal analyses show characteristics of portable radio technology (pulsing, modulation)
– effects of radiation by mobile radio waves on human brain waves in the ELF-range have already been medically proven.

ELF frequencies in mobile communication technology as cause of the hum?

Many people are not aware of the fact that – besides RF frequencies – also low frequencies (ELF frequencies) play an important role in mobile communication technology. This is not only the case with regard to the cell phones (as has been focussed in most publications), but also with regard to the so-called “base stations”.
Low frequencies are used in two techniques: in signal pulsing and in wave modulation.  Our audio also points to an audible bass tone resonance also being heard by victims.

The descriptions that are consistently reaffirmed by victims across the country as well as the world are:

1. Constant noise  2. Humming  3.Buzzing  4. Oscillating pulse  5. Thudding, thumping, rumbling resonance 6. Sounds like a motor idling outside my house 7. can hear it during power outage  8. disturbs sleep  9. unnerving  10. checked all mechanical functions in the home  11. called the utilities; they did nothing 12. Can hear it outside  13. Can hear it sitting with the car turned off.  14. Started hearing it around 2006 to present  15. pressure in the ears and head  16. Not tinnitus 17. Have to sleep with a fan, music, tv to mask the noise; even though I have to listen to another noise than that insidious noise.  18. I can not relax listening to it.  19. Some people hear it some don’t  20. I am afraid to talk about it because people will think I am crazy  21. I have never had trouble sleeping before this noise started  22.  Some mention power lines, microwave  transmitters, cell towers, gas lines, water lines as a theory.  23.  Siren  24. high pitch frequency 25. CAN HEAR IT DURING A POWER OUTAGE.  26.  The noise is present 24 hours a day.

This is to name a few of the descriptors of hearing the Noise.  The Symptoms of the ill effects of being exposed to this noise and radiation pollution are as follows, but not limited to:

Headaches, heart palpitations , vertigo, insomnia, nose bleeds, muscle aches, nervous tension, irritability, anger, feeling not in control of your environment, alienated and not understood, loss of concentration, tired, feeling your body is buzzing, hissing and ringing in the ears from the very high radio frequencies in the Microwave spectrum; radiating in the air and on riding on the power-lines through every outlet of public and private buildings.

Low frequency noise annoyance and stress  (from Noise and Health 2004 Volume 6 Issue 23 Page: 59-72 HG Leventhall

Stresses may be grouped into three broad types: cataclysmic stress, personal stress and background stress. Cataclysmic stress includes widespread and devastating physical events. Personal stress includes bereavements and other personal tragedies. Cataclysmic and personal stresses are evident occurrences, which are met with sympathy and support, whilst their impacts normally reduce with time. Background stresses are persistent events, which may become routine elements of our life. Constant low-frequency noise has been classified as a background stressor (Benton, 1997; Benton and Leventhall, 1994). Whilst it is acceptable, under the effects of cataclysmic and personal stress, to withdraw from coping with normal daily demands, this is not permitted for low level background stresses. Inadequate reserves of coping ability then leads to the development of stress symptoms. In this way, chronic psychophysiological damage may result from long-term exposure to low-level low-frequency noise.

Changes in behavior also follow from long­ term exposure to low-frequency noise. Those exposed may adopt protective strategies, such as sleeping in their garage if the noise is less disturbing there. Or they may sleep elsewhere,  returning to their own homes only during the day.  Victims over time, may undergo character changes, particularly in relation to social orientation, consistent with their failure to recruit support and agreement from the regulatory authority that they do have a genuine noise problem. Their families, and the investigating officer, may also become part of their problem. The claim that their “lives have been ruined” by the noise is not an exaggeration, although their reaction to the noise might have been modifiable at an earlier stage.

Comments on Health, Human Rights, Environmental and Security Concerns With regard to the FortisBC Inc. Application for a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure Project, Project No.3698682:

http://www.bcuc.com/Documents/Proceedings/2013/DOC_33386_C9-10-1_CSTS_Jamieson-Evidence.pdf     (referencing the bio-active 217Hz pulsed frequency)

1.2.12.4 Sleep-related fatigue and road accidents  page 34

We have forensic audio evidence proving this is in our environment and ubiquitous throughout our community 24 hours a day. We have identified the noise in several other towns and cities where we have lived and traveled.  We live in a community that does not have cell towers, public sewer, gas lines, industry, major highways.  The only thing we have is Broadband high-speed internet and Wi-Fi and wireless smart meters.  We did not hear this noise until this was rolled out in our town and same follows in the other places we hear the noise.  In our town National Grid is our electric provider.   In 2006 National Grid installed a wireless digital meter on our home without our knowledge or consent.  In order to manage their wireless network it has to be secure so they acquired approval for a secure personal wireless service (a secure server),  in order to communicate and transfer personal information to their central office.  The wireless network within the electric grid is responsible for the constant noise.  The noise began when they connected the wireless smart meter communication mesh layer in our area.  The wireless network is transmitting on the grid even during major outages. This is why it is heard everywhere and ubiquitous in our environment.  This is the Modern day Hum people are wondering about.   It is not a car idling, an air conditioner rattling, highway traffic, industry. We recorded a fingerprint of a pulsed radio frequency, not a power 60Hz sine wave.  It is narrowband, not broadband, it is man made, not something that is natural. To better understand the various ways the modernization or automation of the smart grid is being implemented read:  A Survey of Wireless Communications for the Electric Power System by  BA Akyol H Kirkham, SL Clements,  MD Hadley    January 2010

We have a fingerprint of this noise as a result of retaining a Forensic Audio engineer.  He has confirmed by analyzing recordings of several locations in our town, as well as a recording during a power outage.  The results are identical audio fingerprint.  1/3 octave band testing confirmed a constant noise, the 217Hz, in the 250Hz narrowband, it is a modulating pulse bursting every second with 1/8 second micro bursts.  This is proven science and it has been duplicated and confirmed repeatedly.  The audio recordings have been documented for the past three years, preserved in data form onto CDs.  This evidence, along with our 1/3 octave band results showing illegal pure tones/noise,  power quality results showing dirty electricity/noise, forensic audio results confirming constant noise, witnesses and other residents in our town who have filed noise complaints with the State.  Yet, we are approaching 7 years of willful negligence by  the State and Utilities in not acknowledging their culpability and intentions to clean up the harmful pollution impacting our heath and well-being.   Thousands of health studies prove this is  a public health  hazard; both the acoustic assault and the non-thermal radiation exposure will have a long term health effects.  We are being used for a human experiment.   The long term exposure to the pure tone of the 217Hz can damage the cohlear in the middle ear.  This is why the EPA set pure tone exposure limits for workplaces.  These limits were for 8 hour work shifts.  We are exposed to the 217Hz pure tone 24 hours a day, non stop, every day!!!  Please help us to expose the truth about this deadly technology.  The Smart Grid is not an intelligent technology. It is a ruthless, greedy, sinister, desperate plan, with no regard for human life.  The Radio frequency spread spectrum of the 902MHz-928MHz being used on the mesh layer of Global Smart metering infrastructure  uses the 217Hz demodulated pulsed frequency to to carry its signal 24 hours a day non stop.  This is why it is heard during a power outage as well.

If you are a victim of this noise please contact us by emailing the globalrfrdefenseteam@verizon.net.  The only way we will be able to get attention on this issue, is by proving the pollution is wide-spread.   We are looking for victims to post their location and experience of hearing this noise and include when you started hearing it.  Please leave your testimonials on the Smart Meter testimonial page.  We are also interested in collecting data in your area.   PLEASE, we are only interested personal experiences and nothing that predated Wireless high-speed broadband and Wi-Fi roll-out, Power-line 2 way communication and the wireless digital meter put on our home in September of 2006, without our knowledge or consent.  Our complaints predated our knowledge or awareness of what the smart grid is about.  We have documented complaints to the State and utilities that prove our symptoms we experienced was not pointing to the smart meters at the time.  We knew it was electromagnetic in nature because of the audible harmonics. Our power quality testing pointed to the utility side.  The report prompted The state to open another investigation,  not to our surprise, was all smoke and mirrors.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonic_weapon

Noise-induced neurologic disturbances in humans exposed to continuous low frequency tones for durations longer than 15 minutes has involved in some cases the development of immediate and long-term problems affecting brain tissue. The symptoms resembled those of individuals who had suffered minor head injuries. One theory for a causal mechanism is that the prolonged sound exposure resulted in enough mechanical strain to brain tissue to induce an encephalopathy.[14]

Please visit our videos on YouTube:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7mLtygxIaFs

“I have no doubt in my mind that at the present time, the greatest polluting element in the earth’s environment is the proliferation of electromagnetic fields.  I consider that to be far greater on a global scale, than warming, and the increase in chemical elements in the environment.”      Dr Robert O. Becker, M.D.  twice nominated for Nobel Prize of this research.

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Responses

  1. Property Boundary Noise
    Property boundary regulations protect us against noise intrusions
    from neighbours, industry, commercial establishments
    and construction sites.
    Noise codes are most useful during evenings and weekends
    and also during warm seasons when windows are open and
    there are outdoor activities. The noise of industry may well
    be masked by traffic noise during weekdays, but in the evenings
    and on Sundays the same noise can be very offensive.
    Inappropriate noise also plays a large part in human reaction:
    we accept our neighbour’s motor mower on Saturday
    morning, but we are terribly upset if he operates it on Sunday
    afternoon. We are also offended if a discotheque
    spreads noise throughout the neighbourhood because
    doors and windows are left open.
    Audible pure tones frequently cause even low-level noise to
    be intolerable. We find audible pure tones in noise emitted
    by power transformers, turbine generators and air-moving
    equipment.
    Noise emission limits at property boundaries are usually expressed
    in dB(A). Some noise codes recognize the excess
    irritation caused by prominent pure tones in noise spectra
    and legislate also against them.

    FULL ARTICLE AT: http://cafefoundation.org/v2/pdf_tech/Noise.Technologies/PAV.Environ.Noise.B&K.pdf

  2. Humming the new earth

    August 10, 2014 by Adrian J Ivakhiv

    [Note: This post has been edited slightly since it was first published, to clarify the difference between sound waves and radio waves.]

    Everything new under the sun begins as an anomaly; but not everything thought to be new is genuinely new. Everything new and anomalous, if studied in the right way, can be explained; but it may take years of creative trial and error before we know what that “right way” is.

    Those might be the twin mottos of the research field known as anomalistics — a field I’ve been interested in, without necessarily knowing it, since I read J. Allen Hynek’s book The UFO Experience at about age twelve. Hynek was the astronomer and scientific skeptic appointed to consult the U. S. Air Force on their Project Blue Book, started in 1952 to scientifically analyze UFO-related data and determine whether they indicated any threat to U. S. national security. Over the course of a few decades, Hynek came to believe in the reality of something he called the “UFO experience,” while never quite accepting the main explanations of that experience ascribed to it by the majority of its experiencers. (Briefly, the two predominant explanations are known as “ETI,” or the Extraterrestrial Intelligence explanation, and “EDI,” or the Extradimensional Intelligence explanation.)

    The anomaly I’ve become particularly interested in recently is one known by some as “the Hum,” or “the Global Hum,” and it is one that I believe is somewhere on the trajectory of going from anomalous to explained. It’s also one that I believe has implications for how we think of the Anthropocene.

    The Hum refers to a low-frequency humming sound reported by many people around the world. According to some accounts, it is global, though concentrated in particular places more than others. According to others, it is local, imagined, or just a loose and overgeneralized name for a wide variety of possible phenomena.

    I’ve gotten particularly interested in The Hum because I’ve begun to notice it in various locations in and around Greensboro, Vermont, where I’ve just spent several weeks this summer. The Greensboro Hum — which I am the only person I know who has heard regularly — is an intermittent, foghorn-like drone at a frequency of about 60 Hz (cycles per second), which sounds like a low “B-natural” tone (slightly flattened) and which happens to be roughly the frequency of AC electrical currents in North America. The latter fact lends credibility to the hypothesis that this particular hum is related to some form of electrical current.

    But it’s non-directional, which means that it seems to come “from everywhere.” I hear it in various places, indoors and outdoors, and even with my ear plugged by a finger. (It seems slightly louder in my left ear.) And it is intermittent: generally most audible in the late evening, at night, and especially in the early morning, and turning “on” for periods ranging from less than a second to more than a minute, but usually for a few seconds at a time. When it is “on” and I listen closely, I can hear an oscillation or pulsation that appears to be regular and at a frequency of 4-5 cycles per second (with a little “skip” around the 4th cycle).

    This hum that I hear can also be modified or “played” to some extent by moving around, though this might simply indicate that it is combining with other, more immediate environmental sounds. Specifically, I can find places indoors where I can make it sound continuous, constant, and “wobbly,” with an audible pulse like one hears in a rumbling diesel engine (which is exactly how others often describe the hum). But this variability may well depend on how the “main” hum frequency combines with others generated by electrical appliances, such as fans, refrigerators, and the like, all of which appear to be able to shield it or cancel it out.

    So am I going crazy? Apparently, no. Or not unless many people around the world are as well.

    But the hum is selective. Data so far suggests that between 2 and 11 percent of people can hear it (where it exists to be heard), and that people in the 45-65 age range are more susceptible to it. (I’m 52.) But it has been reported and even studied in a variety of places going back to the 1950s, with particularly notable occurrences and/or studies in Bristol, England; Taos, New Mexico; Kokomo, Indiana; Auckland, New Zealand; and Windsor, Ontario — which doesn’t, of course, mean that these are all the same “hum.”

    Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to account for the hum, including tinnitus or other kinds of “otoacoustic” emissions (which are generated internally by specific people’s hearing systems); cellular telephone transmissions; mechanical or industrial equipment of one kind or another; geophysical sources such as ocean waves, infragravity waves, or seismic processes; and a variety of government or military programs utilizing electromagnetic transmission signals, including LORAN, HAARP, and TACAMO (military communication signals used by the U. S. Navy).

    A few researchers have attempted to develop combination hypotheses, according to which VLF (very low frequency) or ELF (extremely low frequency) radio waves are generated by specific phenomena or devices and compounded by particular conditions, triggering sounds that are audible only to a certain, low frequency-sensitive portion of the human population. By their nature, VLF radio waves travel very large distances and, if heard as sound, would seem to come “from everywhere.” If VLF radio waves traverse the planet more and more, then they are likely also to combine in unusual ways — which would suggest that the Hum is increasing.

    Among the better scholarly articles on the phenomenon are David Deming’s 2004 article “The Hum: An Anomalous Sound Heard Around the World” (pdf warning), published in the Journal of Scientific Exploration, an interdisciplinary and peer-reviewed anomalistics journal. A recent popular article — which despite its alarmist headline is a good introduction to the topic — is Jared Keller’s Mic.com article “A Mysterious Sound is Driving People Insane — And Nobody Knows What’s Causing It.”

    Perhaps the best, readily-available source of (anecdotal) documentation for the hum is the World Hum Database and Mapping Project. The project is run by hum researcher Glen MacPherson, who provides a number of possible explanations, including the following brief statement outlining his own preferred hypothesis for the “classic Hum,” as distinct from others that may be heard in particular places:

    “I suspect that the Hum is a biological reaction to the multimode propagation and subsequent interference of VLF electromagnetic energy, compounded in some cases by existing sources of otherwise inaudible low frequency sound and infrasound. It is an activation of the auditory system detectable by a small proportion (less than 5 percent) of the population who are acutely sensitive to the presence of low frequency sounds or who have specific anatomical conditions. Increasing numbers of increasingly powerful VLF transmitters, via ground wave, skywave, and magnetic conjugate propagation modes, create ground interference and standing waves that create locations with intense levels of VLF energy. The odd behaviour of the Hum is caused by diurnal, seasonal, and geomagnetic disturbances affecting the ionosphere.”

    In a more recent post, MacPherson writes:

    “There is now a workable theory to explain how pulsed (oscillating) radio waves at lower frequencies can activate human nerve cells. For more than 50 years, increasing numbers of powerful VLF transmitters (mobile, stationary, and airborne), have been in operation. By line of sight, ground wave, sky wave, antipodal focusing, and geomagnetic coupling, the surface of planet Earth is riddled with zones of oscillating and high intensity VLF electromagnetic (EM) radiation.

    “A small proportion of people – I now estimate no more than four percent of the adult population – have auditory systems that are sensitive to lower frequencies and the type of biological activation described in the above paper. They may be able to detect the Hum in many places on Earth solely by interaction with VLF, while there may be another group of people who need some extant sub-audible low frequency sound or infrasound at certain frequencies in order to create sufficient auditory activation that would be interpreted as sound. Also, because the majority of Hum hearers are in the 40s or older, it is possible that certain age-related anatomical changes may initiate Hum hearing.

    “Sources of industrial infrasound, such as mining, hydro-electric projects, windmills, high pressure gas pipelines, and massive construction projects may or may not be prerequisite or aggravating factors in some settings. When there is strong but sub-audible infrasound such as from a large industrial site, it may take little VLF exposure in order to activate the auditory system. High levels of ambient noise during the day from traffic, industry, mechanical devices, and other people, often mask the Hum and explain why the Hum is stronger at night when society has quieted down somewhat, and why the Hum can become very loud in sound-reduced rooms.

    “If the Hum is rooted in VLF energy, it is therefore affected by the behaviour of the Earth’s magnetic field and by the height and layers of the ionosphere, solar activity, the time of day, and the season. The Hum also is rooted in the particular radio frequencies that governments use for communication. Therefore, when a powerful VLF transmitter suddenly stops broadcasting or changes frequency, this will cause a simultaneous change in the Hum at multiple locations across the planet. During a big solar storm, anything could happen. In fact it’s been shown the correlation between solar activity and posting activity on some Hum support forums is very high. The Hum can also slowly drift over an area as do the entry and exit points for geomagnetic conjugate magnetic field lines.”

    So what is the upshot of all this planetary humming for environmental thought and scholarship? The global hum (or hums), if it is (/they are) a new phenomenon — and evidence suggests it has increased over the last 50 years or so — is a new element of the global soundscape. Even if only a small proportion of the human population hears or is affected by it — and hearing something is not necessarily equivalent to being affected by it — there is little reason to believe that at least some other organisms won’t hear or perceive it as well. Those, like elephants, whales, rhinos, hippopotamuses, pigeons, and many others known to make use of infrasounds – sounds lower than the range of typical human hearing — would be particularly vulnerable to being affected by VLF radio waves and their effects.

    It’s not clear to me why, as MacPherson puts it, “industrial infrasound, such as mining, hydro-electric projects, windmills, high pressure gas pipelines, and massive construction projects” would be “prerequisite or aggravating factors” in hearing the Hum. But if this is the case, then all such factors have been increasing in the last 150 years or so. And even if they are not “prerequisite or aggravating factors,” the increase in artificially generated VLF radio waves around the planet — a fact that has hardly been studied – would suggest that human activities are having effects we can hardly comprehend on species around the world.

    In other words, welcome to the Anthropocene, generator of anomalies, novelties, and challenge. Have a good visit, and good luck with it.

    7 Responses

    on August 11, 2014 at 3:29 am | Reply Philip

    I live in Bristol and am sure that I’ve heard the Hum on occasion. Usually at night when I can also hear my raging tinnitus. There’s another much lower frequency that doesn’t seem to be explained by hearing damage. I’ve not heard it elsewhere, other than Bristol.

    _________________________________________________________
    on August 23, 2014 at 6:16 am Adrian

    Thanks, Philip, for your report. Much has been written about the Bristol Hum, so you are definitely not the only one who hears it.
    _________________________________________________________

    on August 14, 2014 at 7:50 am | Reply dmf

    http://clivehamilton.com/ecologists-butt-out-you-are-not-entitled-to-redefine-the-anthropocene/

    __________________________________________________________

    on August 23, 2014 at 6:23 am | Reply Adrian

    A quick update:

    I have recently heard a similar low frequency (which I did not try to measure) in the Toronto area (specifically, central Mississauga, which is highly urbanized), and a lower frequency — about 40 Hz, with an audible harmonic at around 60 Hz — in Burlington, Vermont, where I live. I have also found that listening to this latter tone (from an online source) may be correlated with hearing it more frequently, though this would be difficult to confirm conclusively.

    All of this could lend support to the otoacoustic hypothesis, or a combination of otoacoustic and environmental, with still only a small percentage of the population (likely in a certain middle-upper age group) capable of hearing these sounds.
    _______________________________________________________

    on August 28, 2014 at 7:38 am | Reply Shane Denson

    Great post, Adrian. I wasn’t aware of this phenomenon before, but it stands to reason that the proliferation of technologies producing frequencies just around the cusp of what’s audible to humans would have such effects. And as you say, this is surely just the tip of the iceberg when you take into account the different perceptual systems (and parameters of perception and interaction) in other life forms. Finally, I think this is highly relevant for thinking about the infrastructural (and subphenomenal, including environmental) effects of media generally. Thanks again for posting!
    _______________________________________________________

    on September 3, 2014 at 11:57 pm | Reply Adrian

    Further research note:

    One of the sounds I have been hearing intermittently at night in my home in Burlington, Vermont, is a combination of tones that include an (approximately) very low E, B, and next octave E and B, or very roughly 19, 31, 40, and 60 Hz sounds. (These seem a little off from what they should be, since they should all be harmonics of each other, but perhaps the online tone generator I’m using is inaccurate).

    Together they make a sound that closely resembles the ground loop sound that can be heard on this web page — click on “ground loop” in the right-hand sidebar — except that the 40 Hz (and 20 Hz) tone (a major fifth lower than 60 Hz AC voltage) seems louder to me than in the ground loop sound. It seems likely, however, that these are being generated by some leakage within an AC electrical-voltage system. (E.g., “Ground loop currents can be induced by stray AC magnetic fields… Another source of ground loop currents is current leaking from the “hot” side of the power line into the ground system.” Etc.)

    As with my previous reports, this sound appears to come from “all around,” so I can’t tell how close or distant its source might be. I could walk around the neighborhood to find out, but it’s too intermittent (and late in the night) right now for that to be a promising strategy. However, this has raised my inclination to believe that electrical systems might be the primary causes of at least some of the other hum phenomena that have been reported.

    As is well known, 60 Hz (between a B-flat and a B-natural on an A-440 tuned piano) is the fundamental frequency of AC power mains in North America, while 50 Hz (between a G and a G#) is for Europe and many other parts of the world (see here). So depending on where you live, if you do hear a hum and it’s in that frequency, it’s likely electrical in origin.

    __________________________________________________________
    on November 7, 2014 at 9:09 am | Reply Bob

    Humming started in my Essex, VT neighborhood around 3-4 weeks ago. It never stops but some days it is less loud than others. To be truthful it is driving me nuts. I bought Bose noise cancelling headphones to try to blot it out but this just makes matters worse as it seems to vastly reduce other frequencies but leaves the hum untouched. The hum is most notable in the house where I have to crank up the TV now to hear over it. Outside it is largely unnoticeable due to other sounds masking it. However, I put on my Bose noise cancelling headphones outside and the hum was there. I walked around my neighborhood in hopes it was a findable local phenomenon but it appeared to persist in the entire neighborhood covered by my short walk. Does anyone know of any engineers or state resources that could be consulted as to get to a bottom of a source? I mean some machinery had to be turned on 3-4 weeks ago. This has to have a source.

    http://blog.uvm.edu/aivakhiv/2014/08/10/humming-the-new-earth/

  3. Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
    Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 402514, 9 pages

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/402514

    Research Article

    Radiation Mitigation for Power Line Communications Using Time Reversal

    Amilcar Mescco,1 Pascal Pagani,2 Michel Ney,2 and Ahmed Zeddam1

    1Orange Labs Networks, 2 Avenue Pierre Marzin, 22200 Lannion, France
    2Telecom Bretagne, Microwave Department, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29238 Brest, France
    Received 4 August 2012; Revised 16 January 2013; Accepted 21 January 2013
    Academic Editor: Moises V. Ribeiro

    Copyright © 2013 Amilcar Mescco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
    ————————————————————————————————————————————
    EXCERPT: (COMMON KNOWLEDGE THAT POWER LINE COMMUNICATION CAUSES RFI/EMI. THE NOISE POLLUTION IS IN VIOLATION OF FCC PART 15) AS WELL AS PURE TONE LAWS AND REGULATIONS BY EPA.

    LV or MV electrical wires were not initially designed to propagate communication signals at frequencies above 1 kHz. As a consequence, the communication channel between the transmitter and the receiver is a difficult channel, generating attenuation and multiple propagation paths. The channel capacity is, hence, limited, and signal processing needs to be optimized so as to maximize the offered data rate and Quality of Service (QoS).
    This paper focuses on one of the main limitations related to the PLC technology, namely, the generation of unintentional radiated signal. This phenomenon is mainly due to the unbalanced nature of the electrical network [6]. The variation of the impedances of the loads connected to the network as well as the unequal length of the phase and neutral wires (due to single-phase switches) converts the differential PLC signal into common mode current flowing through the network. Consequently, the copper wires used for transmitting the useful signal act as an antenna, and part of the transmitted power is radiated. This not only results in stronger signal attenuation at the receiver but also leads to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) issues, as the radiated signal may interfere with other existing services, such as amateur radio (HAM) or Short Wave (SW) broadcasting. The impact of PLC transmission on EMC has been studied, for example, within the ICT FP7 project OMEGA [7] and through the ETSI Specialist Task Force 410 [8].
    In order to avoid interference between PLC systems and other users of the spectrum, regulation authorities impose strict emission masks for the transmission of electromagnetic signals on the power lines. In the USA, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Part 15 [9] specifies a maximum level of radiated field for carrier-current systems (including PLC), leading system specifications to define constrained power transmission masks. Figure 1 represents an example of Power Spectral Density (PSD) limits provided in the IEEE 1901 standard for North America. The observed notches are defined to protect specific systems, such as HAM bands. In Europe, CENELEC is currently developing a draft on regulation standard applying to in-home PLC systems [10].

    http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2013/402514/

  4. I received a phone call from two lovely women in Kingston, Ontario a few days ago. It is nothing I have not heard repeatedly, from others, nor experienced myself; that being, the noise pollution torturing us every moment of the day and night from the not so smart grid technology on power lines. What never ceases to amaze me is the fact, the government and utilities continue to get away with this. No matter how many victims or evidence comes forward to describe the negative effects of the electrical pollution leaking on the power grid, the utilities and regulatory agencies continue to ignore the complaints from millions suffering world-wide; making many refugees and losing their income because of the polluted work environments to selling their homes or moving, seeking a home/place with lower radiation levels. Why should we be reduced to this? The reality is dismal and harsh for those already becoming sick from this insane technology.

    This is the stark reality of the sick world we live in and the type of sick, criminal, evil, ignorant, unevolved individuals controlling our lives and sadly, collectively, as a culture are allowing. We have no one but to blame, but ourselves for not getting angry enough to stand up for our rights and our freedoms to protect ourselves. We are so far down the rabbit hole right now and there is nothing but an apathetic wet blanket over us…. [ A NEW CLASS OF REFUGEES A tragic and unthinkable result of the Smart Meter program is that some have become so ill when in proximity to the radiofrequency radiation and dirty electricity coming from the meters that they must actually flee their homes and communities. Scores of people – renters and homeowners alike – are finding it impossible to live in their homes once meters are installed. The symptoms they experience are so intolerable that they must either find accommodation in the few areas that are as yet unmetered, sometimes living in their cars for months on end until they can find solutions.

    Families have been broken apart, relationships have been disrupted, jobs have been lost, and entire geographic areas become off-limits to those whose bodies cannot tolerate the unrelenting assault from the technology used by the meters and the wireless mesh network.

    With their civil rights and human rights being denied them, these people are met with callous disregard by their utility companies and, in many cases, their elected representatives.

    A particularly pernicious form of narcissism is exhibited by those who say to people whose lives have been turned upside down by this toxic technology foisted upon them without knowledge or consent: “Deal with it, it’s modern life – and it’s mandatory.”
    Excerpt from Smart Meter Health Alert http://www.smartmeterhealthalert.org/health.html
    ]

    Our society is in the crapper and there are no leaders capable of turning this around. It is time for a cleansing and extrication of the corporate vampires who don’t give a rats ass about our welfare.

    ……..back to my story about the two lovely women who called…They are plagued by the Smart Grid Syndrome. They are retired professionals, one a librarian. They have lived peacefully in their home for many years. Now, they are being assaulted by the noise on the power lines. The women are living with 6 smart meters on their duplex. One each, being for gas, water and electric. They have tried to seek help from the utilities; only to get a flip response from the rep to call their electrician!!!! “It must be something coming from inside your home” This is a pat response given to everyone who calls. They cannot sleep and the high frequencies are causing tinnitus. Maybe this should be called the Cosby syndrome. No matter how many innocent individuals come forward with the same story, the perp(s) remains accountable and free to continue this criminal behavior.

  5. APPLICATION NOTE 5356

    Overcoming Smart Grid Communications Challenges with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and IEEE 1901.2

    By: Jim LeClare, Principal Member of Technical Staff, Smart Grid Solutions

    © May 01, 2012, Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.

    PLC Problems

    The obstacles involved in updating utility grid communications have roots that stretch back many years. Well before “smart grid,” “smart meter,” “eMeter,” “EV” (electric vehicle), and “PEV” (plug-in electric vehicle) became familiar terms, utility companies began investigating potential solutions to one of their most fundamental operating challenges: reliably maintaining efficient communications in rugged environments.

    For low-frequency (LF) PLCs, negative signal-to-noise (SNR) conditions are a recognized and expected problem in addition to varying impedance on the line; for PLCs through transformers, signal attenuation of 50dB or more is also common. Generally for PLCs, channel characteristics and parameters vary with frequency, location, time, and the type of equipment connected to it. Furthermore, the power line is a very frequency-selective channel, with channel noise, background noise, and impulsive noise often occurring at 50Hz/60Hz and group delays lasting up to several hundred microseconds.

    These conditions on which LF PLC must operate can be best understood from measurements taken on the line, starting with channel noise on the low-voltage line, as illustrated in Figure 1.

    full article: http://www.maximintegrated.com/en/app-notes/index.mvp/id/5356

  6. WHITE PAPER
    Xiaolin Lu Manager of Smart Grid R&D
    Il Han Kim System Engineer
    Ram Vedantham System Engineer
    Smart Grid Solutions team
    Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI)

    Noise has been the most studied factor in PLC systems. Since power lines are a shared medium, they have all kinds of electric devices connected to them so there can be significant noise impacting the system performance.
    The two prevalent noises are periodic impulsive noise (PIN) synchronous to 50Hz or 60Hz mains and narrowband interference (NI). Time domain noise taken in the field from the Spanish grid (Figure 2) shows noise bursts every
    10 ms (=1/100Hz). Special care is needed to handle this kind of impulse noise with forward error correction, interleaving, etc. The PRIME specification defines interleaver to protect burst errors caused by impulse noise.

    READ FULL PAPER AT: http://www.ti.com/lit/wp/slyy038/slyy038.pdf

  7. WHITE PAPER-TEXAS INSTRUMENTS
    Evaluating the low-frequency
    power-line communications
    channel in Rural North America

    II Han Kim and Anand Dabak
    Texas Instruments
    David Rieken and Gordon Gregg
    Aclara Technologies LLC

    Introduction
    This paper addresses power-line communication
    (PLC) for automated metering infrastructure (AMI)
    and automated meter reading (AMR) applications
    in North America, with specific focus on the physical
    layer. FCC regulations in the U.S. permit power
    line communication systems to use the band from 9
    kHz to roughly 500 kHz. This paper presents channel
    and noise characteristics in this band, based on
    field tests. The main challenge in communicating
    in this band is severe signal attenuation by service
    transformers. In rural areas, these transformers
    supply eight or fewer end points on average.
    Consequently, it is not economical to use a bridge
    device across each transformer; instead a router
    is placed on the medium voltage line for every few
    service transformers. Developers should consider
    the channel between a concentrator or a router
    on the medium voltage line (around 7.2 kV) and
    low-voltage (around 110V) end points connected
    to transformers some distance away on the medium
    voltage line. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNR)
    observed in such a link, and implications for signal
    design, are studied. Data is provided on all modem
    connection scenarios, including medium voltage
    to low voltage (MV → LV), low voltage to medium
    voltage (LV → MV), and medium voltage to medium
    voltage (MV → MV). These results are intended to
    define requirements for a PHY / MAC communication
    system that can support the AMI application in such
    channel conditions.

    http://www.ti.com/lit/wp/spry203/spry203.pdf

  8. […] which had changed in her life was the meter. When she started researching the issue, she realized she was not alone. Others were experiencing the same annoying humming grinding sound, the same adverse health impacts […]

  9. […] which had changed in her life was the meter. When she started researching the issue, she realized she was not alone. Others were experiencing the same annoying humming grinding sound, the same adverse health impacts […]

  10. PROTOTYPE OF COUPLING UNIT NETWORK FOR POWER LINE COMMUNICATIONS
    by
    BHARATH SRINIVASAN
    B.E. University of Madras, 2003

    Summer Term
    2006

    http://etd.fcla.edu/CF/CFE0001306/Srinivasan_Bharath_200608_MS.pdf

    EXCERTS:

    Power Line Communications has made impressive strides since its introduction. Power Line Communications (PLC) or Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) is the method of transmitting broadband signals over the power lines and making it available at the power outlet in homes. It provides last mile communication and makes use of existing power lines to transmit signals, thereby eliminating the need to lay cables all over again. PLC is fast becoming a commercial reality in the United States. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is working toward making PLC a standard with particular emphasis on power emission issues and interference with nearby bands.

    BPL test sites running in the U.S. (ARRL, 2004). BPL providers argue that by tweaking their systems to not use frequencies that aren’t in use locally, they can coexist as a viable means of communication. The assumption is that they won’t interfere locally with anyone, but due to the propagation characteristics of HF, it could cause likely long distance interference or an increased noise floor across the HF bands. Sharing bandwidth is a problem because the available bandwidth over the wires is fixed and so, the bandwidth is split among the users. This indicates that more number of users implies less bandwidth available for users. There is a possibility of impedance mismatch which can occur when two different appliances are connected to the power supply which interacts with each other. If the devices do not have the same impedance, mismatch occurs and results in loss of signal.

    Another major disadvantage is that due to the signal loss that take place in a wire, there is high attenuation and there is a need for repeaters at regular intervals. BPL is susceptible to noise and due to the propagation characteristics of HF, it is likely that long distance interference or an increased noise floor across the HF bands could occur. Such problems are hard to track down to a particular system and hundreds of these systems operating across the country could have a cumulative effect

    (Breen, 2004).

  11. Smart Grid Syndrome caused by the Smart Grid technologies on the Power Grid. Infrasound. Citizens across the United States as well as world wide are hearing the infrasound in their homes 24 hours a day non-stop. Formal complaints filed to our State Regulatory agencies are being dismissed by our officials. How long can this elephant in the room be ignored? We have been forced to endure, night and day what the military has employed for torture and crowd control. Why is this being ignored? The digital Smart Grid is a death trap to all living things. The utilities/corporate America have made us prisoners in our environment. The empathy of those who have the power to help, legally and otherwise is woefully devoid of any social responsibility. Victims who are conscious of issue are also culpable for their lack of action, as well.

  12. UPDATE: DR. Khan, Electrical Engineering Expert Confirming- the Electromagnetic pollution on power lines has a biological affect.

    Dr. Kahn’s articles about the smart grid issues are being blacked out by the media because of pressure by the smart grid industry

    The email below is proof we are exposed to a global public health hazard and that the industry is culpable.

    Madam Sandra,

    Let me clarify the Pf meter. It is a power factor meter that measures cosine of phase angle between voltage and current. This power factor (cosine of angle) can be reduced down to zero to bring voltage in phase with current (no time delay between them) using capacitors.

    Inductive loads cause KVAr losses which can be cancelled by -KVAr of capacitors but electronic loads produce kVAd (distortion) that can not be mitigated except not using electronic loads which we can not afford in practical life.

    Electronic loads smear/distort sinusoidal wave profile producing high frequency waves which do interfere with electronic control systems around.

    This noise affects same way as most electromagnetic signals. It does not effect the way truck noise effects. It affects in a biological way. It depends upon its energy (in ev). About 3 to 4 ev energy is enough to kill a living cell but electronic noise has lower energy.

    Dr N Khan
    ——————————————–
    On Tue, 11/18/14, Sandra wrote:

    Subject: Re: RE: A specter of logical challenges haunts smart grid
    To: nasrullahk@yahoo.com
    Date: Tuesday, November 18, 2014, 9:13 PM

    Thank you for taking the time to do so. It does not surprise me about the media
    black out. Are there others whom are qualified and which you know who would be willing to speak out about this
    issue. I would appreciate you using my format in my blog to do so. It would be of great service to post
    any and all papers pointing out the negatives of this technology. Do you have knowledge of the noise pollution this technology is causing worldwide? I would like you to clarify your description of the meter below. You refer to a Pf meter? Was this a typo error and you meant RF meter? If not, what is a Pf meter?

    Sincerely,

    Sandra Chianfoni
    http://www.sandaura.wordpress.com
    from a hardwired computer in a low rf
    environment

  13. THIS ARTICLE SPEAKS OF THE HARM VLF NOISE DOES TO HUMANS WHICH ARE ESCAPABLE OR INTERMITTENT AT ITS WORST. DUE TO THE EFFECTS OF THE SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES;WHAT WE ARE SPEAKING OF IS NOT ESCAPEABLE. THE VERY LOW BASS FREQUENCIES ARE COMING FROM PULSED RF SIGNALS, WHICH ARE BIOLOGICALLY HARMFUL TO ALL LIVING THINGS. HEALTH AGENCIES ARE IN CHARGE OF LOW FREQUENCY AND VERY LOW FREQUENCY MITIGATION, YET EVEN WITH THIS PROBLEM BEING BROUGHT, FOR EXAMPLE, TO THE DIRECTOR,BOB KNORR, EPIDEMIOLOGIST OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT IN MASSACHUSETTS,HE REPEATEDLY CHOSETO IGNORE HIS RESPONSIBILITY TO ACT. PUBLIC RECORDS DOCUMENT HIS KNOWLEDGE OF THE NOISE POLLUTION FROM THE SMART GRID GOING BACK TO 2008. HE WORKED IN CONCERT WITH DPU, DEP TO COVER UP THE PROBLEM BY SIGNING OFF AND CLOSING OUR CASE REGARDING THIS MATTER-SANDAURA

    Low Frequency Intrusion
    What is Low Frequency Intrusion?

    Low Frequency Intrusion (LFI) is the involuntary exposure to loud low frequencies in people’s personal environments, like their home or work place, inducing physical and mental distress. Evidence suggests that second-hand bass frequencies, most commonly generated by high-powered car or home audio systems, have a negative impact on the human body, mind and spirit. View the current LFI survey results.

    Consequently, LFI presents a more significant health concern than anyone realizes at this time.

    Low Frequency Intrusion also provokes frustration, negative thoughts, feelings of revenge and contempt toward the LFI offender(s) in otherwise peaceful, reasonable and considerate people. This response is quite normal, considering the disrespectful and repeated violations of their private space. LFIs simply induce a lower emotional, intellectual and spiritual mindset.

    Research has long substantiated the harmful effects low frequency noise can have on people. Symptoms include aggravation, decreased concentration, premature exhaustion, elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate, insomnia, migraines, anxiety, frustration, sleep disruption, anger, contempt and many others.

    What is Noise Pollution? source: http://www.epa.gov

    The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or disturbing sound”. Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as sleeping, conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one’s quality of life. The fact that you can’t see, taste or smell it may help explain why it has not received as much attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is constantly filled with sounds, yet most of us would probably not say we are surrounded by noise. Though for some, the persistent and escalating sources of sound can often be considered an annoyance. This “annoyance” can have major consequences, primarily to one’s overall health.

    Health Effects source: http://www.epa.gov

    Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. Studies have shown that there are direct links between noise and health. Problems related to noise include stress related illnesses, high blood pressure, speech interference, hearing loss, sleep disruption, and lost productivity. Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is the most common and often discussed health effect, but research has shown that exposure to constant or high levels of noise can cause countless adverse health affects.

    Is the quality of your life affected by Low Frequency Intrusion?
    Please complete the survey and help reduce LFIs by sharing your valuable input.
    Low Frequency Intrusion as a weapon?

    Most LFIs also contain infrasound (below 20Hz) which you can only feel and surely have experienced at one time or another. Low Frequency Intrusion has also been used effectively by the U.S. military to combat enemies and, at high enough volume, can do bodily harm to or even kill a human.

    High intensity infrasound can induce disorientation and reduced sensory motor functions. At higher levels of intensity, experiments have shown that animals may cease breathing temporarily. While the LFIs we normally experience are generally at lower levels, we are still negatively affected by the frequencies on different scales.

    Why take the LFI survey?

    The Low Frequency Intrusion survey gathers the voices of the American people to gain a realistic perspective on how LFIs affect our lives. The survey results will allow us to better understand the gravity of this negative social phenomenon on a local, regional and national level. View the current LFI survey results.

    If enough people contribute to the Low Frequency Intrusion survey, the importance of LFI will be substantiated and ideally contribute to solutions through better awareness and response, drastically reducing or even eliminating LFIs in the future.

    Your input is very instrumental in allowing us all to enjoy a more peaceful and quiet world.

    Help reduce LFIs in the future by sharing your valuable input!
    It’s quick and easy and it just takes a few minutes.
    The horrid future of Low Frequency Intrusion

    How many people already consume sleep aids or alcohol just to be able to sleep because of Low Frequency Intrusion originating from booming cars or inconsiderate neighbors? (AND NOW THE SMART GRID SYNDROME WHICH IS CONSTANT NOT INTERMITTENT-SANDAURA

    How many people have called local law enforcment just to find out that it makes barely any difference and the Low Frequency Intrusions continue?

    Unless we speak up and let our voices be heard, LFI instances will exponentially increase as the audio systems generating these negative, invasive second-hand bass frequencies will only become louder and less costly. Even remote rural areas have already been infested by LFIs and there is no refuge anymore.

    Imagine, Low Frequency Intrusion times 10 or times 100 – No peace, No quiet, Ever! Your home or work place will constantly be invaded by low frequencies while your and your family’s mental and physical health are adversely affected.

    The equipment manufacturers, distributors and retailers of such invasive audio systems don’t give a damn about how Low Frequency Intrusion affects the population. (NOR DOES OUR GOVERNMENT/UTILITIES-SANDAURA

    In fact, they keep pushing the envelope to increase LFI with louder and cheaper audio systems while actually encouraging and glamourizing stupid, intrusive and inconsiderate behavior. They don’t care, they are making a crap load of money and have a an endless pool of morons eager to spend their cash on even louder, more invasive car and home audio systems.

    Unless we combat Low Frequency Intrusion by contributing to the LFI survey, get ready to endure an aggravating and invasive future of ever increasing LFIs all around us!

    It’s your turn to speak up, be heard and make a difference!
    Only your email and ZIP is required, and it just takes a few minutes.

    http://www.lowfrequencyintrusion.com/?p=about

  14. Summary of the ICNIRP/WHO Workshop and EHS Science and Wireless session 11-11-2014
    My name is Steven Weller, I hold a science degree in biochemistry and microbiology. I attended the recent ICNIRP workshop held in Wollongong as an EMERG committee member. The Electromagnetic Energy Reference Group (EMERG) was established by ARPANSA to enable input from the community and other stakeholders on issues relating to electromagnetic radiation(EMR) and health. Below is a synopsis of the meetings I attended and includes my own personal opinions.

    EXCERPT:

    It was very clear that evening that the majority of the presenters are working to an agenda. Perhaps this statement is what is on the back of their minds:
    “A strict enforcement of stringent exposure standards (safety regulations), there could be unfavourable effects on industrial output and military functions.” and “Recognition of the standard (stringent safety regulations) could also limit the application of new electronic technology by making the commercial exploitation of some products unattractive because of increased costs imposed by the need for additional safeguards.” US Defense Intelligence Agency Report on the BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (RADIOWAVES AND MICROWAVES) EURASIAN COMMUNIST COUNTRIES (1976)
    At this point in time I was completely wasted from being exposed to all sorts of RF for several hours and thought what is the point in responding, but I could not help myself – someone has to stand up and say “the emperor has no clothes”. I stood up and read some notes that I had prepared prior to the workshop.

    Firstly I stated that in 1961 Allan Frey conducted a study that showed people could hear microwave pulses 100m from an antenna. That the subjects also complained of dizziness, headaches and pins and needles sensations. I then read a line from a DIA paper that looked at Russian Microwave research (1976) which claimed Military personnel exposed to microwaves exhibited a variety of subjective complaints including headaches, fatigue, dizziness, sleeplessness etc. That the aforementioned symptoms are repeated over and over with all sorts of wireless exposures. How do they explain this?
    Of course the panel said that there are no studies that provide a correlation between exposure and EHS nonspecific symptoms. I said this was false as I have performed a systematic review of 84 EHS studies and found the following.
     21 Neutral Studies with neither a negative or positive findings
     25 Negative studies
     38 Positive studies

    They did not respond and went onto the next person.

    The meeting facilitator Professor Ray Kemp, asked the audience to raise their hand if they felt the Australian RF standard did not provide sufficient protection. I observed a considerable show of hands. This is a clear indication that there is a lack of trust between the public and the so called experts. If this workshop was meant to build trust with academics and the public it most certainly failed. The same “world scientific consensus” spin doctors keep appearing and saying all is okay. Those highly qualified scientists who disagree with this view are not invited to speak.

    A number of other people in the audience asked questions of the panel. One included how many studies had been performed in Australia to look at the health of populations living close to mobile phone masts. I stood up and said there had been none. The panel responded that one had been done for an RMIT cancer cluster that occurred in 2006. The building in question, which has rooftop mobile phone towers, was temporarily closed following the discovery of five brain tumours in a month and two others in 1999 and 2001. Two were malignant and five were benign. Yes, there had been an investigation and a claim that it was not a cancer cluster, because all the cancers were different. However there was no formal peer reviewed study published in any scientific journal. The main problem with the investigation was its narrow focus that only looked at the individuals in the building. There have been no studies looking at populations living within 500m of a mobile phone base station in Australia! One member of the public indicated that he has done his own survey and found a large number of people have developed cancer living 15 years or more near a tower.

    There was an informal gathering after the meeting. I was not able to stay long as I had a flight to catch. I managed to talk to Dr Deventer from the WHO EMF project about EHS and suggested she take some time to look at my “personal EHS case study” that is available on the internet. She appeared to be opened minded on the subject and mentioned that the former head of the WHO and ex-prime minister of Norway, Gro Brundtland, was EHS and that she had been chosen for these positions because she was a very capable person. I appreciated her honesty and took this as a tacit acknowledgement that EHS is not due to a psychological problem.
    It must be understood that ICNIRP is an NGO and has no accountability to the public. WHO has also been tainted in the past by industry interference with the Tobacco science debacle. It would appear history is repeating itself again with vested interests, radio frequencies and health.

    https://stopsmartmetersau.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/summary-of-the-icnirp-and-science-and-wireless-workshops-11-11-20142.pdf

  15. By Sandaura • Posted in Smart Meter News Updates • Edit

    Nov

    18

    2014

    Dr. N Khan, Electrical Engineer recent email to GRFRDT about Media Blackout and smart grid technologies

    ———-Original Message———-

    From: Nasrullah Khan Kalair
    Date: Nov 10, 2014 8:06:16 AM
    Subject: RE: A specter of logical challenges haunts smart grid
    To:globalrfrdefenseteam@verizon.net

    To: nasrullahk@yahoo.com
    Date: Thursday, November 6, 2014, 10:41 PM

    Hello,
    Thanks Sir/Madam,

    I wrote an article “on Smart meter” in Urdu in local press dunya news a few months ago but the local agents of smart grid technologies approached editor to not publish my subsequent articles.

    Smart is not the meter but the mindset behind the meter. It can count reactive power based on true power factor, which usually 0.5 when normal pf meter reads 0.9, and will increase consumer bills

    Thanks one again for standing to smart meter skepticism

    Dr N Khan

    ——————————————–
    On Thu, 11/6/14, Sandra globalrfrdefenseteam@verizon.net wrote:

    Subject: RE: A specter of logical challenges haunts smart grid

    I want to thank you for your paper. It is one of the few published papers that properly and honestly explains the negatives of the so called smart grid from an electrical engineer’s perspective. I posted your link to the article at http://www.sandaura.wordpress.com you briefly mentioned the noise issues associated with bi-directional communications on the power lines. This problem exists and is harming the public. The issues has not been addressed by the corporate/gov/utilities.

    I was harmed by the smart meter on my home. I know first hand what this radiation does to an individual. I was exposed for 6 years before finally getting the meter replaced with a mechanical one that is once again manually read. The meter was removed in 2012 and my nose bleeds, migraines, heart palpitations, vertigo, nervous tension has not reappeared since.

    My complaints of the noise and symptoms to the utilities and regulatory agencies preceded my knowledge of the meter being placed on my home, without consent or knowledge of this technology. We have data proving the power lines are the cause of this pollution. If you would like more data, we are currently working with an M.I.T. engineer who has measured the noise and has identified the power lines as the source.

    Thank you for your honest assessment. We need more engineers such as you and your associates have courageously demonstrated in this paper.

    Sincerely,

    Sandra Chianfoni

    http://www.sandaura.wordpress.com

    International Journal of Smart Grid and Clean Energy A
    specter of logical challenges haunts smart grid
    N. Khan*, S. Rauf, N. Abas, A.
    Kalaira Department of
    Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information
    Technology, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan
    Abstract

    http://www.ijsgce.com/uploadfile/2013/1016/20131016121141120.pdf

    By Sandaura • Posted in Smart Meter News Updates • Edit

  16. The background noise levels are within human hearing range. The noise is composed of several illegal pure tones that are hazardous to our health and wellbeing. These frequencies causing EMI and RFI are also killing our wildlife. They are admitting this exists, (as evident in the IEEE paper below) but will not admit it to the public when those who are suffering and filing complaints are asking for them to fix it!!!

    We deserve action. We deserve protection. We deserve those who are serving us to serve the public and not corporations who are profiting from our suffering. This has to stop. This is criminal action. You knowingly and willing are committing a heinous crimes; punishable by law. How much longer do you think you and all associated and contributing to this harm can get away with it?
    It is sociopathic in nature to allow people’s lives to be in ruin and claim there is no direct correlation or impact in what you are exposing us to. the fact that this technology has been introduced into our environment without knowing if it is harmful, which has been repeatedly used does not make it right to do anyway. This is absolutely not a reason to move forward. Lies have replaced the truth and the public is being bamboozled and those who are aware, like myself, are spinning their wheels trying to be heard.

    The opposition knows they have the time, the resources and the power to control the information that is being put out there and that the majority of the public will believe your lies, until they are personally impacted .

    You are basically profiting on human disaster until it becomes to obvious to cover up any longer-Sandaura

    Published in:
    Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), 2014 17th IEEE

    Date of Conference:
    13-16 April 2014
    Page(s):203 – 207 INSPEC Accession Number:14334386 Conference

    Location :Beirut DOI:10.1109/MELCON.2014.6820532 Publisher:IEEE

    The power-line communications channel (PLC) is one of the harsh and challenging channels due to heavy load and noise impairments. Sending and/or receiving of data bits over the PLC channel can be easily affected; therefore, several investigations have been conducted to illustrate interference effects over PLC where intermittent noise plays a major role in this type of communications channel. The in-building network is a non-stable system due to the heavy traffic in the wiring system; therefore the power-line communication system gets affected by the internal and external communications factors. In this paper we apply direct connections to the PLC networks in a “unique” method when the 220V mains are on and when off. Indirect connections are also conducted using different types of equipment and connections and results are presented.

  17. The power line noise on the power lines today cannot be minimized by comparing the typical explanations for why power lines make noise. In the past before smart metering The noise sources were always isolated, not of a worldwide phenomenon as it currently is. The noise, due to weather, is temporary as is industrial or mechanically related incidents that were directional sources of noise. Because this is broadcasting on the power lines and the lines are a line source turning it into one continuous antenna; it is ubiquitous and omnidirectional. This is not a common place nor did it exist until the smart grid two way, PLC was implemented.

    The FCC, local and State agencies have received formal noise complaints from citizens across the USA, as well as worldwide; complaining about the constant low frequency noise and vibrations in their homes. This is ongoing to this day and it continues to be ignored by the utilities and government officials. It is a public health hazard because it has disrupted citizens ability to sleep. Sleep depravation as medically documented has long term health effects. Radio frequencies which are pulsed have a neurological influence on the body. So the fact is, that those who don’t hear the noise are effected as well. – Sandaura

    For the Grid and Through the Grid:
    The Role of Power Line Communications
    in the Smart Grid
    Stefano Galli, Senior Member, IEEE, Anna Scaglione, Fellow, IEEE, Zhifang Wang, Member, IEEE

    The PLC channel is a very harsh and noisy transmission
    medium that is difficult to model [115]: it is frequencyselective,
    time-varying, and is impaired by colored background
    noise and impulsive noise. Additionally, the structure of the
    grid differs from country to country and also within a country
    and the same applies for indoor wiring practices.
    Every section of the grid has its own channel characteristics
    from a communications point of view. On the transmission
    side, attenuation and dispersion are very small and can be well
    coped with. However, as we move towards the distribution side
    and towards the home, attenuation and dispersion grow considerably
    especially at higher frequencies (see Table II) [115],
    [116]. On the other hand, the PLC channel is characterized by
    a high noise level at all voltage levels.
    There are various kinds of noises, which are often time,
    frequency and weather dependent. Furthermore, the PL itself
    is a noise source. In HV/MV networks, background noise
    is mainly caused by leakage or discharge events, power
    converters, transformer, etc. There are also impulsive events
    due to switching transients, lightening and other discharging
    events. In the LV and HAN environment, appliances become
    the cause of a Linear and Periodically Time-Varying behavior
    of the channel impulse response as well as sources
    of cyclostationary noise. The Linear and Periodically Time-
    Varying behavior is due to the fact that the electrical devices
    plugged in outlets (loads) contain non-linear elements such
    as diodes and transistors that, relative to the small and rapidly
    changing communication signals, appear as a resistance biased
    by the AC mains voltage. The periodically changing AC signal
    swings the devices over different regions of their non-linear
    I/V curve and this induces a periodically time-varying change
    of their resistance. The overall impedance appears as a shunt
    impedance across the hot and return wires and, since its
    time variability is due to the periodic AC mains waveform,
    it is naturally periodic [117]. Furthermore, electrical devices
    are noise generators and, in view of Nyquist theorem, noise
    also appears to be cyclostationary. Finally, PLs are also both
    source and victims of electro-magnetic interference so that
    narrowband noise is also often present. Modem design is thus
    challenging, especially in dealing with the various sources
    of noise – which probably represents the most challenging
    problem in PLC.
    In the deployment of Smart Grid devices, and PLC sensors
    in particular, it is important to devise network planning tools
    to establish coverage. A first key ingredient is to have accurate
    and flexible channel modeling tools, especially statical ones.
    A second element is a network model based on topological
    properties of the PL network that serves the dual purpose of
    clarifying the structure of the Smart Grid data source as well
    as the physical data delivery infrastructure – which in both
    cases is the grid itself.

    Full article at: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1010.1973.pdf

  18. It is common knowledge among the orchestrators of the Smart Grid network that Power lines were NEVER MEANT to be used in any other way but to deliver electricity one way to its customers. (AS WRITTEN IN THE PAPER POSTED BELOW).

    People should be outraged and alarmed that we are exposed to a technology that is harmful and deadly. The power lines are being misused in that the Smart Grid is superimposed on the power lines as an information/data network. This requires radio frequencies both wired and wireless to be injected into the power lines in order to manage the global smart grid.

    The non-thermal, pulsed, bio active radio frequencies are transmitting on the lines 24/7; even during major power outages these frequencies are radiating in our air and into our bodies all the time. this is not normal. This is insane.

    This technology is for the sole purpose of profit. There are alternatives that would be safer and still make available the information and data we all have become accustom to having at our fingertips. The choice of using power lines was the cheapest way to profit, ignoring…IT IS NOT THE SAFEST CHOICE, nor a healthy choice.

    The noise that is a major issue with power line communication is written in every engineering paper discussing this technology. It is a problem they will not address or acknowledge to those filing complaints. This constant noise is destroying lives; including the lives of our wildlife.

    We should not have to live every day with illegal pure tones broadcasting in our nature and in our homes, schools and workplaces. This is absolutely not acceptable, it is a crime, it is inhumane to allow such torture.

    THE POWER LINES WERE NOT MEANT TO FUNCTION AS A GLOBAL TWO WAY COMMUNICATION SYSTEM. WHAT THE CRIMINALS HAVE CREATED IS A WORLD WIDE TORTURE CHAMBER. THIS WILL GO DOWN IN HISTORY AS BARBARIC, SUPERCEDING ANY HALOCAUST DOCUMENTED TO DATE.

    The random acts of violence, civil disobedience, unaccountable rises in disease and death is directly related to the radio waves and dirty electricity exposure penetrating our bodies on a daily basis. We are prisoners of this pollution!-SANDAURA

    A complete Narrow-Band Power Line
    Communication node for AMR

    Abstract- In this paper it is reported the description of a
    demonstrator implementing a low data rate Power Line
    Communication node, developed for Automated Meter Reading
    applications. This study is focused on investigating those aspects
    of the communication node design impacting most on the
    requirements for compliance with communication on the
    electrical network environment. Design choices, compliance tests,
    thermal analysis and experimental results are described in this
    paper.
    Index Terms- Power line communication, automated meter
    reading, analog front-end, power amplifier, line coupling, thermal
    impedance.
    I. INTRODUCTION
    When designing a Power Line Communication (PLC) node,
    attention is required to make this node capable to operate in a
    complex and challenging environment like the power line. One
    of the most restrictive requirements is the compliance with the
    European EN50065 standard for signaling on low voltage
    electrical networks [1].
    The requirements set by this standard are not only related to
    conducted emissions, according to EN50065-1, but also to
    impedance magnitude limits fixed by EN50065-7 and to
    immunity against conducted interferences as required by
    EN50065-2-1.
    The specific structure

    http://www.dora-vda.com/download/1569013853.pdf

    • Having first hand knowledge in witnessing the lack of maintenance and preventative upkeep regarding EMI issues and the regulatory agencies contribution to lack of accountability, on the part of the utilities; do you think they could remotely be on top of issues surrounding the malfunction of the smart grid and smart meters? The answer is resounding, NO!

      They are not equipped with the man power who are educated and qualified to manage the Global Smart Grid. There are millions of meters, millions of connection points on the power lines where all these smart grid devices have been attached to the wires, where radiation leakage including noise is currently an ongoing issue. The powerlines are in violation of the FCC Part 15 and this is being ignored.

      When you have a technology, such as this, that should never have been implemented to begin with; there is no way to manage or maintain what is already exposing people to harmful radiation and dirty electricity-Sandaura

      EXCERPT

      Evaluate The Impact
      Of EMI On Smart Meters
      Jack Browne,
      Contributing Editor (A Supplement to Electronic Design)

      EMI conditions can vary a great deal across an electric service area, especially for smart meters that may need to rely on PLC to transfer details about power consumption to a utility. Because electric power lines and grids were designed to deliver power, they are not always optimal for transferring high-speed digital signals, such as those required between a smart meter and a utility. High-speed digital signals are often coupled along the power lines by means of narrowband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (NB-OFDM), which can achieve data rates of a few hundred kilobits per second across a communications distance of several kilometers.
      For smart meters to function in these applications, the PLC network must transfer data in spite of
      2. Inductors are among the passive circuit elements essential for building EMI filters for smart meters.

      noise from a wide range of sources, including switching loaded, dc-dc converters, ac motors and controllers, even synchronous noise from light dimmers. These many different noise sources are coupled to the power-line network via electrical connections or by means of EMI radiation. Combined with an analog front end (AFE), modulation techniques such as OFDM are quite capable of overcoming the effects of impulse noise while effectively transferring data at reasonably high rates.
      In addition to the PLC networks, more and more smart meters rely on wireless communications to transfer energy-use data to a utility. EMI problems for the smart meter are more likely to come from other electronic devices nearby, such as an air conditioner or a television.
      Smart meters for wireless use are designed to operate within specific available frequency bands, sending information in short bursts. Depending on the location, electric utilities may use the frequency range from 800 to 1000 MHz, while gas meters may communicate from 400 to 500 MHz and home appliance networks (HANs) run from 2400 to 2500 MHz.

      In California, smart meters from Pacific Gas & Electric (www.pge.com) use 902 to 928 MHz to report electricity usage and frequencies from 450 to 470 MHz to communicate gas usage, typically at peak transmit power levels of much less than 1 W and in short bursts. These wireless smart meters must operate according to the Part 15 Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules, but they are still subject to the effects of EMI.

      Regardless of frequency, EMI can be a concern for a smart meter. In many cases, a smart meter will be mounted in a location that is electromagnetically noisy, with many other sources of electromagnetic energy near it. The meter’s sensitive measurement circuits must be protected from distortion because of external EMI sources, while its communications circuits, which may operate for very short periods but at relatively high data rates, must also be guarded against distortion and degradation from internal and external EMI sources. Again, through proper filtering and the selection of passive RLC circuit elements for those filters, the effects of EMI on smart meters can be minimized within a small size and at low cost.
      The compact size and relative high level of integration employed in most smart meters increase the importance of sufficient circuit-level isolation within these devices. Inductors and magnetic devices for EMI noise suppression can provide the electromagnetic isolation required between the smart meter’s current-sensing measurement circuitry (often precision resistors in series) and its power supply/conversion circuitry.

      Additional passive circuit elements such as resistors and capacitors can help form the filtering circuitry needed to suppress the effects of EMI within a smart meter as well as the effects of outside EMI sources on proper smart meter operation. A wide range of commercial chip and packaged circuit elements can help produce low-cost EMI filtering within small smart meter housings, such as the Bourns® (www.bourns.com) common-mode-filter Model 7400, 7500, and CM series high-frequency chip inductors for RF isolation and noise suppression.

      http://www.ttiinc.com/docs/io/32947/Bourns-emi-smart-meters.pdf

  19. mart Grid PLC is the sourSce of worldwide NOISE POLLUTION! IT IS TIME TO STOP THE TORTURE ON HUMANS AND WILDLIFE

    Summary

    PowerlineCommunication = No New Wires

    Narrowband vs. Broadband technologies

    Challenging conditions

    Power line environment: noise, attenuation, distortion

    EMC regulations: frequency bands, output power, emissions

    Power lines are everywhere

    Homes and Buildings: Lighting control, Energy monitoring

    Distributed Renewable Energy Sources: Solar Panels, Wind Turbines

    Connected Cities: Street/Tunnel/Parking Lot lighting systems

    Utilities: Remote metering, Demand-Response, AMI

    Dedicated Wires: Plug-in Electric Cars, RS485/RS232 replacement

    Market trends

    Smart Grid: application of digital processing and communications to the power grid

    Coexistence of various communication solutions

    Wired and Wireless

    Narrowband and Broadband

    READ FULL PAPER AT:

    http://www.renesasinteractive.com/file.php/1/CoursePDFs/DevCon_On-the-Road/DevCon_On-the

    Road/Automotive/Narrowband_Powerline_Communication_Applications_and_Challenges.pdf

  20. WHEN IS THE NOISE ON THE POWERLINES GOING TO BE DEALT WITH? CITIZENS WORLD-WIDE ARE SUFFERING DAILY!!! THIS HAS TO STOP! CORPORATE GOVERNMENTS ARE HOLDING US PRISONERS IN OUR OWN HOMES. THIS IS CRIMINAL AND WILL BE PROSECUTED. READ THE TESTIMONIALS OF THOSE WHOSE LIVES HAVE BEEN STOLEN BY YOUR ARROGANCE AND WILLFUL NEGLECT.

    IEEE EXPLORE DIGITAL LIBRARY

    Power-line communication (PLC) allows establishing digital communications without adding any new wires. It will turn one’s house or neighborhood grid into a smart grid.

    PLC has some issues, namely, high noise at low frequencies and varying characteristic impedance.

    This paper addresses these issues to improve the signal-to-noise ratio by increasing the signal or reducing the noise.

    PLC MODEMs are subject to legislations that limit the signals in the line. The radiated signal is proportional to the current, but not to the input current, since the current forms a standing wave along the line. However, better performance can be achieved if the input current is measured. The receiver circuit of the transmitting MODEM can be used to estimate the input impedance. This paper presents a technique to use this new information to achieve better performance and to follow legislation changes in the band above 30 MHz. A study of the viability of using impulsive noise reduction techniques to further increase performance is also presented. The short noise pulses result in high correlation between the noises in different carriers. Impulse position detection should result in an increase in capacity.

    Published in:
    Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:28 , Issue: 1 )
    Page(s):58 – 66 ISSN :0885-8977 INSPEC Accession Number:13188748 DOI:10.1109/TPWRD.2012.2214065 Date of Publication :16 November 2012 Date of Current Version :20 December 2012 Issue Date :Jan. 2013 Sponsored by :IEEE Power & Energy Society Publisher:

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6355703&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F61%2F6389787%2F06355703.pdf%3Farnumber%3D6355703

  21. Smart Grid Distributed Generation System (DGS) include wireless devices on smart grid (power lines) Please read below another article referring to the noise issues on the power lines.

    EXCERPTS:

    Corona Noise Considerations for Smart Grid Wireless Communication and Control Network Planning

    Posted by In Compliance on June 1, 2013 in Basics | 21 Views | Leave a response

    1306 F3 cover As the wireless receiver sensitivity levels surpass thermal noise levels, reliable operation of smart grid Distributed Generating System (DGS) wireless communication and control devices demands consideration of the power line produced noise spectrum. The power line noise spectrum varies based on voltage and current of transmission lines and load characteristics. The electrical-noise environment is anticipated to be more severe in a DGS than in a Conventional Electrical Power System (CEPS) due to the frequent changes in power distribution routing.

    While most measurable noise occurs at frequencies less than 200 MHz, the corona noise spectrum extends up to 2000 MHz. The corona noise spectrum measured near a 26 kV substation was compared with corona generated in the laboratory. Using this data, in-band wireless receiver susceptibility levels for GSM, CDMA and LTE modulation techniques were experimentally evaluated and presented.

    This article examines the electrical noise spectrum in a typical Conventional Electrical Power System (CEPS) environment. Based on the environmental noise spectrum evaluated, an analysis of the suitability of a reliable and secure wireless communication and control system for DGS operation is presented. Further, an overview of RF noise present in the transmission and distribution system environment is also discussed. Finally, the radiated frequency spectrum is presented for corona noise demonstrating how the corona noise at wireless system in-band frequencies will degrade the receiver sensitivity.

    Read Full article at:

    http://incompliancemag.com/corona-noise-considerations-for-smart-grid-wireless-communication-and-control-network-planning/

  22. Simulation of Powerline Communication (PLC)for Smart Grids in OMNeT++
    Ricardo de Sousa Augusto
    Propagation Model

    The major problems faced by PLC communications are the
    following [10]:
    1) Design – The Power line grid was not designed to support
    communications
    , so the environment is very unfriendly.
    2) Varying Channel Model – The channel model is important
    to analyze the feasibility of communications. However, in
    PLC, the channel transfer function is always varying
    depending on the devices connected to the network.
    3) High dependence of transmitter and receiver location –
    Receivers near noise sources get a poor Signal to Noise
    3
    Ratio (SNR).
    4) Reflection, multi-path fading and attenuation – Like the
    Wireless channel, there are signal echoes due to the
    reflections caused by impedance mismatch.
    5) Noise – The noise in PLC is characterized by having an
    impulsive frequency selective nature or both of them. The
    impulsive noise has a short duration and can be as high as
    50dB above the background noise.

    https://fenix.tecnico.ulisboa.pt/downloadFile/395145996565/resumo.pdf

    • Published on Sep 20, 2012

      These are the side affects from using a system that touts being able to pass over transformers. The power is off at the breaker but the G3-PLC system keeps delivering a pulsed field around the entire perimeter. This all is happening without a smart meter but with an Elstar analog. There is no escaping this weapon. The electrical engineers should get together with some brain surgeons to understand what they are creating. I have pleaded for the power company to stop sending this 500KHz-5KHz frequency but they continue to do so. I’m sure this is wreaking havoc on all my appliances. Why are all the power companies delivering more than 60 Hertz to our appliances?

  23. Nells commented on Smart Grid Syndrome Testimonials

    You can read more testimonials at:

    http://smartmeternewsupdates.wordpress.com/about/

    Claudio Cusso, Sardinia, Italy

    Power line communication has been installed in over 90% of Italy. The 24/7 humming/buzzing and pressure changes in the ears began with me right after the installation of PLC (power line communication) in my town for the “stupid” grid.

    Approve Trash | Mark as Spam

    More information about Nells

    IP: 174.27.39.6, 174-27-39-6.bois.qwest.net
    E-mail: nellsburg4625@startmail.com
    URL:
    Whois: http://whois.arin.net/rest/ip/174.27.39.6

  24. TWACS smart meters problematic
    to public health and safety

    Here are excerpts from the article….

    The basic facts are that the TWACS system

    • creates powerful dirty electricity

    • the dirty electricity is a constant presence, possibly 24/7

    • the dirty electricity turns all wires throughout the house into antennas

    • keeping an analog meter will not help much

    • the signals cannot be blocked or filtered

    • scientific studies link dirty electricity with various health effects

    • some people are sensitive to dirty electricity

    • TWACS lacks basic security features

    This article covers all these issues in detail.

    Keywords: TWACS, DCSI, power line communication, power line carrier, PLC,

    dirty electricity, health, smart meter, security

    The TWACS system

    TWACS stands for Two-Way Automatic Communication System. It allows the

    utility company to communicate with smart meters placed on buildings throughout

    their service area. Some TWACS equipment is marketed under the DCSI name.

    The communication system is two-way, which means the utility can both send

    instructions to the meter and receive data coming back.

    The system can be used to read the electrical usage for a building, instead of

    sending out a meter reader once a month. The information is typically transmitted

    a few times a day, but could be only once a month. The transmission may contain

    2 TWACS low frequency power line communication system

    information on how much power is used each hour of the day, or even every 15

    minutes.

    Any type of system that communicates by transmitting signals via power lines is

    called a Power Line Carrier or Power Line Communication (PLC) system.

    TWACS meters may also be wireless

    Some TWACS meters also have built-in wireless transmitters. These are mostly

    used to get meter readings from gas and water meters on the house. The electrical

    meter then passes that information on, using the TWACS system. The Aclara

    Badger ORION product is such a system.

    On more advanced systems, the TWACS meter may use wireless to transmit

    signals to a display screen or “smart” appliances inside the house.

    The line pulses

    A TWACS meter sends out a brief pulse about 60 times a second when it

    transmits. This pulse travels along the power line to the substation, where it is

    received. The voltage fluctuations from the pulse may also go in other directions

    on the local grid, including into other houses in the area, even houses several miles

    away.

    The utility equipment at the substation also transmits by sending pulses on the

    grid, which it uses to send instructions to the smart meters. These pulses travel on

    all the local power lines and into all houses. The system would not work if the

    pulses did not travel to all houses. The pulse does not “know” which meter it is

    going to, just as the signal from a radio station does not know in advance where

    the radio receivers are.

    Powerful pulses

    The TWACS pulses need to travel for many miles, sometimes dozens of miles. At

    the other end, the pulse signals must be clearly detectable above the regular line

    noise, so the pulses must be fairly powerful. The strength of the TWACS

    transmitters are not disclosed by the vendor, however.

    READ full article at: http://www.eiwellspring.org/smartmeter/TWACS.pdf


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